9,901 research outputs found

### Angular momentum conservation for uniformly expanding flows

Angular momentum has recently been defined as a surface integral involving an
axial vector and a twist 1-form, which measures the twisting around of
space-time due to a rotating mass. The axial vector is chosen to be a
transverse, divergence-free, coordinate vector, which is compatible with any
initial choice of axis and integral curves. Then a conservation equation
expresses rate of change of angular momentum along a uniformly expanding flow
as a surface integral of angular momentum densities, with the same form as the
standard equation for an axial Killing vector, apart from the inclusion of an
effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation.Comment: 5 revtex4 pages, 3 eps figure

### Gravitational radiation from dynamical black holes

An effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation is identified for
uniformly expanding flows of the Hawking mass-energy. It appears in an energy
conservation law expressing the change in mass due to the energy densities of
matter and gravitational radiation, with respect to a Killing-like vector
encoding a preferred flow of time outside a black hole. In a spin-coefficient
formulation, the components of the effective energy tensor can be understood as
the energy densities of ingoing and outgoing, transverse and longitudinal
gravitational radiation. By anchoring the flow to the trapping horizon of a
black hole in a given sequence of spatial hypersurfaces, there is a locally
unique flow and a measure of gravitational radiation in the strong-field
regime.Comment: 5 revtex4 pages. Additional comment

### Unified first law of black-hole dynamics and relativistic thermodynamics

A unified first law of black-hole dynamics and relativistic thermodynamics is
derived in spherically symmetric general relativity. This equation expresses
the gradient of the active gravitational energy E according to the Einstein
equation, divided into energy-supply and work terms. Projecting the equation
along the flow of thermodynamic matter and along the trapping horizon of a
blackhole yield, respectively, first laws of relativistic thermodynamics and
black-hole dynamics. In the black-hole case, this first law has the same form
as the first law of black-hole statics, with static perturbations replaced by
the derivative along the horizon. There is the expected term involving the area
and surface gravity, where the dynamic surface gravity is defined as in the
static case but using the Kodama vector and trapping horizon. This surface
gravity vanishes for degenerate trapping horizons and satisfies certain
expected inequalities involving the area and energy. In the thermodynamic case,
the quasi-local first law has the same form, apart from a relativistic factor,
as the classical first law of thermodynamics, involving heat supply and
hydrodynamic work, but with E replacing the internal energy. Expanding E in the
Newtonian limit shows that it incorporates the Newtonian mass, kinetic energy,
gravitational potential energy and thermal energy. There is also a weak type of
unified zeroth law: a Gibbs-like definition of thermal equilibrium requires
constancy of an effective temperature, generalising the Tolman condition and
the particular case of Hawking radiation, while gravithermal equilibrium
further requires constancy of surface gravity. Finally, it is suggested that
the energy operator of spherically symmetric quantum gravity is determined by
the Kodama vector, which encodes a dynamic time related to E.Comment: 18 pages, TeX, expanded somewhat, to appear in Class. Quantum Gra

### Construction and enlargement of traversable wormholes from Schwarzschild black holes

Analytic solutions are presented which describe the construction of a
traversable wormhole from a Schwarzschild black hole, and the enlargement of
such a wormhole, in Einstein gravity. The matter model is pure radiation which
may have negative energy density (phantom or ghost radiation) and the
idealization of impulsive radiation (infinitesimally thin null shells) is
employed.Comment: 22 pages, 7 figure

### Quantum energy inequalities in two dimensions

Quantum energy inequalities (QEIs) were established by Flanagan for the
massless scalar field on two-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes globally
conformal to Minkowski space. We extend his result to all two-dimensional
globally hyperbolic Lorentzian spacetimes and use it to show that flat
spacetime QEIs give a good approximation to the curved spacetime results on
sampling timescales short in comparison with natural geometric scales. This is
relevant to the application of QEIs to constrain exotic spacetime metrics.Comment: 4 pages, REVTeX. This is an expanded version of a portion of
gr-qc/0409043. To appear in Phys Rev

### Dynamic wormholes

A new framework is proposed for general dynamic wormholes, unifying them with
black holes. Both are generically defined locally by outer trapping horizons,
temporal for wormholes and spatial or null for black and white holes. Thus
wormhole horizons are two-way traversible, while black-hole and white-hole
horizons are only one-way traversible. It follows from the Einstein equation
that the null energy condition is violated everywhere on a generic wormhole
horizon. It is suggested that quantum inequalities constraining negative energy
break down at such horizons. Wormhole dynamics can be developed as for
black-hole dynamics, including a reversed second law and a first law involving
a definition of wormhole surface gravity. Since the causal nature of a horizon
can change, being spatial under positive energy and temporal under sufficient
negative energy, black holes and wormholes are interconvertible. In particular,
if a wormhole's negative-energy source fails, it may collapse into a black
hole. Conversely, irradiating a black-hole horizon with negative energy could
convert it into a wormhole horizon. This also suggests a possible final state
of black-hole evaporation: a stationary wormhole. The new framework allows a
fully dynamical description of the operation of a wormhole for practical
transport, including the back-reaction of the transported matter on the
wormhole. As an example of a matter model, a Klein-Gordon field with negative
gravitational coupling is a source for a static wormhole of Morris & Thorne.Comment: 5 revtex pages, 4 eps figures. Minor change which did not reach
publisher

### Generalized inverse mean curvature flows in spacetime

Motivated by the conjectured Penrose inequality and by the work of Hawking,
Geroch, Huisken and Ilmanen in the null and the Riemannian case, we examine
necessary conditions on flows of two-surfaces in spacetime under which the
Hawking quasilocal mass is monotone. We focus on a subclass of such flows which
we call uniformly expanding, which can be considered for null as well as for
spacelike directions. In the null case, local existence of the flow is
guaranteed. In the spacelike case, the uniformly expanding condition leaves a
1-parameter freedom, but for the whole family, the embedding functions satisfy
a forward-backward parabolic system for which local existence does not hold in
general. Nevertheless, we have obtained a generalization of the weak
(distributional) formulation of this class of flows, generalizing the
corresponding step of Huisken and Ilmanen's proof of the Riemannian Penrose
inequality.Comment: 21 pages, 1 figur

### Kerr black holes in horizon-generating form

New coordinates are given which describe non-degenerate Kerr black holes in
dual-null foliations based on the outer (or inner) horizons, generalizing the
Kruskal form for Schwarzschild black holes. The construction involves an area
radius for the transverse surfaces and a generalization of the Regge-Wheeler
radial function, both functions of the original radial coordinate only.Comment: 4 revtex4 page

### Production and decay of evolving horizons

We consider a simple physical model for an evolving horizon that is strongly
interacting with its environment, exchanging arbitrarily large quantities of
matter with its environment in the form of both infalling material and outgoing
Hawking radiation. We permit fluxes of both lightlike and timelike particles to
cross the horizon, and ask how the horizon grows and shrinks in response to
such flows. We place a premium on providing a clear and straightforward
exposition with simple formulae.
To be able to handle such a highly dynamical situation in a simple manner we
make one significant physical restriction, that of spherical symmetry, and two
technical mathematical restrictions: (1) We choose to slice the spacetime in
such a way that the space-time foliations (and hence the horizons) are always
spherically symmetric. (2) Furthermore we adopt Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates
(which are well suited to the problem because they are nonsingular at the
horizon) in order to simplify the relevant calculations.
We find particularly simple forms for surface gravity, and for the first and
second law of black hole thermodynamics, in this general evolving horizon
situation. Furthermore we relate our results to Hawking's apparent horizon,
Ashtekar et al's isolated and dynamical horizons, and Hayward's trapping
horizons. The evolving black hole model discussed here will be of interest,
both from an astrophysical viewpoint in terms of discussing growing black
holes, and from a purely theoretical viewpoint in discussing black hole
evaporation via Hawking radiation.Comment: 25 pages, uses iopart.cls V2: 5 references added; minor typos; V3:
some additional clarifications, additional references, additional appendix on
the Viadya spacetime. This version published in Classical and Quiantum
Gravit

- â€¦