9,901 research outputs found

    Angular momentum conservation for uniformly expanding flows

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    Angular momentum has recently been defined as a surface integral involving an axial vector and a twist 1-form, which measures the twisting around of space-time due to a rotating mass. The axial vector is chosen to be a transverse, divergence-free, coordinate vector, which is compatible with any initial choice of axis and integral curves. Then a conservation equation expresses rate of change of angular momentum along a uniformly expanding flow as a surface integral of angular momentum densities, with the same form as the standard equation for an axial Killing vector, apart from the inclusion of an effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation.Comment: 5 revtex4 pages, 3 eps figure

    Gravitational radiation from dynamical black holes

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    An effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation is identified for uniformly expanding flows of the Hawking mass-energy. It appears in an energy conservation law expressing the change in mass due to the energy densities of matter and gravitational radiation, with respect to a Killing-like vector encoding a preferred flow of time outside a black hole. In a spin-coefficient formulation, the components of the effective energy tensor can be understood as the energy densities of ingoing and outgoing, transverse and longitudinal gravitational radiation. By anchoring the flow to the trapping horizon of a black hole in a given sequence of spatial hypersurfaces, there is a locally unique flow and a measure of gravitational radiation in the strong-field regime.Comment: 5 revtex4 pages. Additional comment

    Unified first law of black-hole dynamics and relativistic thermodynamics

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    A unified first law of black-hole dynamics and relativistic thermodynamics is derived in spherically symmetric general relativity. This equation expresses the gradient of the active gravitational energy E according to the Einstein equation, divided into energy-supply and work terms. Projecting the equation along the flow of thermodynamic matter and along the trapping horizon of a blackhole yield, respectively, first laws of relativistic thermodynamics and black-hole dynamics. In the black-hole case, this first law has the same form as the first law of black-hole statics, with static perturbations replaced by the derivative along the horizon. There is the expected term involving the area and surface gravity, where the dynamic surface gravity is defined as in the static case but using the Kodama vector and trapping horizon. This surface gravity vanishes for degenerate trapping horizons and satisfies certain expected inequalities involving the area and energy. In the thermodynamic case, the quasi-local first law has the same form, apart from a relativistic factor, as the classical first law of thermodynamics, involving heat supply and hydrodynamic work, but with E replacing the internal energy. Expanding E in the Newtonian limit shows that it incorporates the Newtonian mass, kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy and thermal energy. There is also a weak type of unified zeroth law: a Gibbs-like definition of thermal equilibrium requires constancy of an effective temperature, generalising the Tolman condition and the particular case of Hawking radiation, while gravithermal equilibrium further requires constancy of surface gravity. Finally, it is suggested that the energy operator of spherically symmetric quantum gravity is determined by the Kodama vector, which encodes a dynamic time related to E.Comment: 18 pages, TeX, expanded somewhat, to appear in Class. Quantum Gra

    Construction and enlargement of traversable wormholes from Schwarzschild black holes

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    Analytic solutions are presented which describe the construction of a traversable wormhole from a Schwarzschild black hole, and the enlargement of such a wormhole, in Einstein gravity. The matter model is pure radiation which may have negative energy density (phantom or ghost radiation) and the idealization of impulsive radiation (infinitesimally thin null shells) is employed.Comment: 22 pages, 7 figure

    Quantum energy inequalities in two dimensions

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    Quantum energy inequalities (QEIs) were established by Flanagan for the massless scalar field on two-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes globally conformal to Minkowski space. We extend his result to all two-dimensional globally hyperbolic Lorentzian spacetimes and use it to show that flat spacetime QEIs give a good approximation to the curved spacetime results on sampling timescales short in comparison with natural geometric scales. This is relevant to the application of QEIs to constrain exotic spacetime metrics.Comment: 4 pages, REVTeX. This is an expanded version of a portion of gr-qc/0409043. To appear in Phys Rev

    Dynamic wormholes

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    A new framework is proposed for general dynamic wormholes, unifying them with black holes. Both are generically defined locally by outer trapping horizons, temporal for wormholes and spatial or null for black and white holes. Thus wormhole horizons are two-way traversible, while black-hole and white-hole horizons are only one-way traversible. It follows from the Einstein equation that the null energy condition is violated everywhere on a generic wormhole horizon. It is suggested that quantum inequalities constraining negative energy break down at such horizons. Wormhole dynamics can be developed as for black-hole dynamics, including a reversed second law and a first law involving a definition of wormhole surface gravity. Since the causal nature of a horizon can change, being spatial under positive energy and temporal under sufficient negative energy, black holes and wormholes are interconvertible. In particular, if a wormhole's negative-energy source fails, it may collapse into a black hole. Conversely, irradiating a black-hole horizon with negative energy could convert it into a wormhole horizon. This also suggests a possible final state of black-hole evaporation: a stationary wormhole. The new framework allows a fully dynamical description of the operation of a wormhole for practical transport, including the back-reaction of the transported matter on the wormhole. As an example of a matter model, a Klein-Gordon field with negative gravitational coupling is a source for a static wormhole of Morris & Thorne.Comment: 5 revtex pages, 4 eps figures. Minor change which did not reach publisher

    Generalized inverse mean curvature flows in spacetime

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    Motivated by the conjectured Penrose inequality and by the work of Hawking, Geroch, Huisken and Ilmanen in the null and the Riemannian case, we examine necessary conditions on flows of two-surfaces in spacetime under which the Hawking quasilocal mass is monotone. We focus on a subclass of such flows which we call uniformly expanding, which can be considered for null as well as for spacelike directions. In the null case, local existence of the flow is guaranteed. In the spacelike case, the uniformly expanding condition leaves a 1-parameter freedom, but for the whole family, the embedding functions satisfy a forward-backward parabolic system for which local existence does not hold in general. Nevertheless, we have obtained a generalization of the weak (distributional) formulation of this class of flows, generalizing the corresponding step of Huisken and Ilmanen's proof of the Riemannian Penrose inequality.Comment: 21 pages, 1 figur

    Kerr black holes in horizon-generating form

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    New coordinates are given which describe non-degenerate Kerr black holes in dual-null foliations based on the outer (or inner) horizons, generalizing the Kruskal form for Schwarzschild black holes. The construction involves an area radius for the transverse surfaces and a generalization of the Regge-Wheeler radial function, both functions of the original radial coordinate only.Comment: 4 revtex4 page

    Production and decay of evolving horizons

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    We consider a simple physical model for an evolving horizon that is strongly interacting with its environment, exchanging arbitrarily large quantities of matter with its environment in the form of both infalling material and outgoing Hawking radiation. We permit fluxes of both lightlike and timelike particles to cross the horizon, and ask how the horizon grows and shrinks in response to such flows. We place a premium on providing a clear and straightforward exposition with simple formulae. To be able to handle such a highly dynamical situation in a simple manner we make one significant physical restriction, that of spherical symmetry, and two technical mathematical restrictions: (1) We choose to slice the spacetime in such a way that the space-time foliations (and hence the horizons) are always spherically symmetric. (2) Furthermore we adopt Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates (which are well suited to the problem because they are nonsingular at the horizon) in order to simplify the relevant calculations. We find particularly simple forms for surface gravity, and for the first and second law of black hole thermodynamics, in this general evolving horizon situation. Furthermore we relate our results to Hawking's apparent horizon, Ashtekar et al's isolated and dynamical horizons, and Hayward's trapping horizons. The evolving black hole model discussed here will be of interest, both from an astrophysical viewpoint in terms of discussing growing black holes, and from a purely theoretical viewpoint in discussing black hole evaporation via Hawking radiation.Comment: 25 pages, uses iopart.cls V2: 5 references added; minor typos; V3: some additional clarifications, additional references, additional appendix on the Viadya spacetime. This version published in Classical and Quiantum Gravit