1,980 research outputs found

    The role of confidence in world class sport performance.

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    This thesis provided a detailed examination of the role of sport confidence in World Class sport performance. More specifically, the sources and types of sport confidence utilised by World Class sport performers were identified, and mechanisms underlying confidence effects in this elite subgroup were explored. These findings led to the development of an applied measure of sport confidence which was validated in a practical setting, and used to provide the foundation for a cognitive-behavioural intervention designed to enhance sport confidence. Studies one and two adopted a qualitative approach utilising semi-structured interviews. Study three adopted a more idiographic approach where confidence profiling was used as the primary means of data collection, and reflective narratives were undertaken to report the findings. Finally, study four utilised a case-study approach. The purpose of study one was to identify the sources and types of sport confidence salient to athletes competing on the World Class stage. Results indicated that the most prevalent sources of confidence utilised by these athletes were preparation, performance accomplishments, and coaching. However, gender variations were evident within these confidence sources. Several types of confidence were also identified, providing evidence for the multidimensional nature of sport confidence. Again, gender variations were evident within the types of sport confidence identified.The purpose of study two was to examine the role of sport confidence in World Class sport performance. In accordance with previous research, high sport confidence was found to be synonymous with positive affect, effective competition behaviours and the efficient use of cognitive resources, resulting in successful competition performance. Furthermore, the results uncovered gender differences in both competitive orientation and the factors responsible for debilitating sport confidence. Considered in the context of previous research, the results of studies one and two highlighted the need for an applied measure to assess and monitor athletes sport confidence and factors related to their sport confidence, regardless of their age, gender, sport level or sport type. Consequently, study three described the reflections of three sport psychology consultants who successfully adapted performance profiling to sport confidence specifically. Further evidence was also provided to support the multidimensional nature of sport confidence and the recommendation that types of sport confidence might be viewed as evidence based beliefs grounded in an athlete's sources of sport confidence. The final study adopted a case study approach in which confidence profiling was used as the foundation for the successful delivery of a sport psychology service, adapted from the eight-step cognitive-behavioural consultation model (Murphy & Murphy, 1992). In this study confidence profiling was used to accurately assess the sport confidence of an elite female swimmer, provide the foundation for an athlete-centred intervention designed to enhance the athlete's sport confidence, and monitor any changes in the athlete's confidence as a result of the intervention. Evaluation of the intervention showed that with one exception, the athlete had increased her confidence levels across all types of her sport confidence. In summary, the findings of this thesis have both theoretical and practical implications. From a theoretical perspective, the findings emphasise the multidimensional nature of sport confidence, and the importance of utilising a sport-specific framework to aid future research. From a practical perspective, this thesis highlights the importance of adopting an individualised approach to the assessment of athletes' sport confidence, and developing athlete driven interventions to meet their specific confidence needs

    Yips and Lost Move Syndrome : assessing impact and exploring levels of perfectionism, rumination, and reinvestment

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    This study examined whether the yips and lost move syndrome (LMS) are associated with higher levels of perfectionism, rumination, and reinvestment, and whether individuals experiencing these problems perceive them as highly stressful. Samples of yips (N = 15) and LMS-affected (N = 15) individuals, and two matched control groups, completed the Frost multidimensional perfectionism scale (FMPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart & Rosenblate, 1990), the ruminative response scale (RRS; Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991), the reinvestment scale (Masters, Polman & Hammond, 1993), and the impact of event scale (IES; Horowitz, Wilner & Alverez, 1979). Findings indicate higher scores in the yips and LMS groups for perfectionism, rumination, reinvestment, and IES compared to their respective control groups. The results suggest that rumination, reinvestment, and aspects of perfectionism increase vulnerability to the yips and LMS, and that that both the yips and LMS are equally distressing. Keywords: performance block, anxiety, trauma, self-focussed attention

    Expanding medical education in general practice

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    General practitioners are major providers of medical education, with recent expansion at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, particularly in rural areas. General practitioners not only teach general practice, but also provide access to patients well suited to other aspects of medical school curricula. Teaching demands on GPs, already high, may increase with the addition of extra medical school places, additional medical schools, and expanding vocational GP training. The challenge for this growth is the low morale in the GP workforce; a feeling of being under valued, a lack of trained GP teachers, and poor remuneration for teaching

    Successful high-dosage monotherapy of tigecycline in a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia-septicemia model in rats

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    Background: Recent scientific reports on the use of high dose tigecycline monotherapy as a ‚Äúdrug of last resort‚ÄĚ warrant further research into the use of this regimen for the treatment of severe multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative bacterial infections. In the current study, the therapeutic efficacy of tigecycline monotherapy was investigated and compared to meropenem monotherapy in a newly developed rat model of fatal lobar pneumonia-septicemia. Methods: A Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum ő≤-lactamase (ESBL) and an isogenic variant producing K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) were used in the study. Both strains were tested for their in vitro antibiotic susceptibility and used to induce pneumonia-septicemia in rats, which was characterized using disease progression parameters. Therapy with tigecycline or meropenem was initiated at the moment that rats suffered from progressive infection and was administered 12-hourly over 10 days. The pharmacokinetics of meropenem were determined in infected rats. Results: In rats with ESBL pneumonia-septicemia, the minimum dosage of meropenem achieving survival of all rats was 25 mg/kg/day. However, in rats with KPC pneumonia-septicemia, this meropenem dosage was unsuccessful. In contrast, all rats with KPC pneumonia-septicemia were successfully cured by administration of high-dose tigecycline monotherapy of 25 mg/kg/day (i.e., the minimum tigecycline dosage achieving 100% survival of rats with ESBL pneumonia-septicemia in a previous study). Conclusions: The current study supports recent literature recommending high-dose tigecycline as a last resort regimen for the treatment of severe multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. The use of ESBL- and KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains in the current rat model of pneumonia-septicemia enables further investigation, helping provide supporting data for follow-up clinical trials in patients suffering from severe multidrug-resistant bacterial respiratory infections

    High-Fidelity, Frequency-Flexible Two-Qubit Fluxonium Gates with a Transmon Coupler

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    We propose and demonstrate an architecture for fluxonium-fluxonium two-qubit gates mediated by transmon couplers (FTF, for fluxonium-transmon-fluxonium). Relative to architectures that exclusively rely on a direct coupling between fluxonium qubits, FTF enables stronger couplings for gates using non-computational states while simultaneously suppressing the static controlled-phase entangling rate (ZZZZ) down to kHz levels, all without requiring strict parameter matching. Here we implement FTF with a flux-tunable transmon coupler and demonstrate a microwave-activated controlled-Z (CZ) gate whose operation frequency can be tuned over a 2 GHz range, adding frequency allocation freedom for FTF's in larger systems. Across this range, state-of-the-art CZ gate fidelities were observed over many bias points and reproduced across the two devices characterized in this work. After optimizing both the operation frequency and the gate duration, we achieved peak CZ fidelities in the 99.85-99.9\% range. Finally, we implemented model-free reinforcement learning of the pulse parameters to boost the mean gate fidelity up to 99.922¬Ī0.009%99.922\pm0.009\%, averaged over roughly an hour between scheduled training runs. Beyond the microwave-activated CZ gate we present here, FTF can be applied to a variety of other fluxonium gate schemes to improve gate fidelities and passively reduce unwanted ZZZZ interactions.Comment: 23 pages, 16 figure

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Effects of antiplatelet therapy on stroke risk by brain imaging features of intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral small vessel diseases: subgroup analyses of the RESTART randomised, open-label trial

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    Background Findings from the RESTART trial suggest that starting antiplatelet therapy might reduce the risk of recurrent symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage compared with avoiding antiplatelet therapy. Brain imaging features of intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral small vessel diseases (such as cerebral microbleeds) are associated with greater risks of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage. We did subgroup analyses of the RESTART trial to explore whether these brain imaging features modify the effects of antiplatelet therapy
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