1,268 research outputs found

    Z' Bosons at Colliders: a Bayesian Viewpoint

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    We revisit the CDF data on di-muon production to impose constraints on a large class of Z' bosons occurring in a variety of E_6 GUT based models. We analyze the dependence of these limits on various factors contributing to the production cross-section, showing that currently systematic and theoretical uncertainties play a relatively minor role. Driven by this observation, we emphasize the use of the Bayesian statistical method, which allows us to straightforwardly (i) vary the gauge coupling strength, g', of the underlying U(1)'; (ii) include interference effects with the Z' amplitude (which are especially important for large g'); (iii) smoothly vary the U(1)' charges; (iv) combine these data with the electroweak precision constraints as well as with other observables obtained from colliders such as LEP 2 and the LHC; and (v) find preferred regions in parameter space once an excess is seen. We adopt this method as a complementary approach for a couple of sample models and find limits on the Z' mass, generally differing by only a few percent from the corresponding CDF ones when we follow their approach. Another general result is that the interference effects are quite relevant if one aims at discriminating between models. Finally, the Bayesian approach frees us of any ad hoc assumptions about the number of events needed to constitute a signal or exclusion limit for various actual and hypothetical reference energies and luminosities at the Tevatron and the LHC.Comment: PDFLaTeX, 24 pages, 7 figures. Version with improved tables and figure

    Association of Depression and Poor Mental Health With Cardiovascular Disease and Suboptimal Cardiovascular Health Among Young Adults in the United States.

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    Background Depression is a nontraditional risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data on the association of depression and poor mental health with CVD and suboptimal cardiovascular health (CVH) among young adults are limited. Methods and Results We used data from 593 616 young adults (aged 18-49 years) from the 2017 to 2020 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized US adults. Exposures were self-reported depression and poor mental health days (PMHDs; categorized as 0, 1-13, and 14-30 days of poor mental health in the past 30 days). Outcomes were self-reported CVD (composite of myocardial infarction, angina, or stroke) and suboptimal CVH (≥2 cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, overweight/obesity, smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity, and inadequate fruit and vegetable intake). Using logistic regression, we investigated the association of depression and PMHDs with CVD and suboptimal CVH, adjusting for sociodemographic factors (and cardiovascular risk factors for the CVD outcome). Of the 593 616 participants (mean age, 34.7±9.0 years), the weighted prevalence of depression was 19.6% (95% CI, 19.4-19.8), and the weighted prevalence of CVD was 2.5% (95% CI, 2.4-2.6). People with depression had higher odds of CVD than those without depression (odds ratio [OR], 2.32 [95% CI, 2.13-2.51]). There was a graded association of PMHDs with CVD. Compared with individuals with 0 PMHDs, the odds of CVD in those with 1 to 13 PMHDs and 14 to 30 PHMDs were 1.48 (95% CI, 1.34-1.62) and 2.29 (95% CI, 2.08-2.51), respectively, after adjusting for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors. The associations did not differ significantly by sex or urban/rural status. Individuals with depression had higher odds of suboptimal CVH (OR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.65-1.95]) compared with those without depression, with a similar graded relationship between PMHDs and suboptimal CVH. Conclusions Depression and poor mental health are associated with premature CVD and suboptimal CVH among young adults. Although this association is likely bidirectional, prioritizing mental health may help reduce CVD risk and improve CVH in young adults

    Z' signals in polarised top-antitop final states

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    We study the sensitivity of top-antitop samples produced at all energy stages of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to the nature of an underlying Z' boson, in presence of full tree level standard model (SM) background effects and relative interferences. We concentrate on differential mass spectra as well as both spatial and spin asymmetries thereby demonstrating that exploiting combinations of these observables will enable one to distinguish between sequential Z's and those pertaining to Left-Right symmetric models as well as E6 inspired ones, assuming realistic final state reconstruction efficiencies and error estimates.Comment: 21 pages, 6 colour figures, 10 table

    Biomass of Scyphozoan Jellyfish, and Its Spatial Association with 0-Group Fish in the Barents Sea

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    An 0-group fish survey is conducted annually in the Barents Sea in order to estimate fish population abundance. Data on jellyfish by-catch have been recorded since 1980, although this dataset has never been analysed. In recent years, however, the ecological importance of jellyfish medusae has become widely recognized. In this paper the biomass of jellyfish (medusae) in 0–60 m depths is calculated for the period 1980–2010. During this period the climate changed from cold to warm, and changes in zooplankton and fish distribution and abundance were observed. This paper discusses the less well known ecosystem component; jellyfish medusae within the Phylum Cnidaria, and their spatial and temporal variation. The long term average was ca. 9×108 kg, with some years showing biomasses in excess of 5×109 kg. The biomasses were low during 1980s, increased during 1990s, and were highest in early 2000s with a subsequent decline. The bulk of the jellyfish were observed in the central parts of the Barents Sea, which is a core area for most 0-group fishes. Jellyfish were associated with haddock in the western area, with haddock and herring in the central and coastal area, and with capelin in the northern area of the Barents Sea. The jellyfish were present in the temperature interval 1°C<T<10°C, with peak densities at ca. 5.5°C, and the greatest proportion of the jellyfish occurring between 4.0–7.0°C. It seems that the ongoing warming trend may be favourable for Barents Sea jellyfish medusae; however their biomass has showed a recent moderate decline during years with record high temperatures in the Barents Sea. Jellyfish are undoubtedly an important component of the Barents Sea ecosystem, and the data presented here represent the best summary of jellyfish biomass and distribution yet published for the region

    Latent variables and structural equation models for longitudinal relationships: an illustration in nutritional epidemiology

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The use of structural equation modeling and latent variables remains uncommon in epidemiology despite its potential usefulness. The latter was illustrated by studying cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between eating behavior and adiposity, using four different indicators of fat mass.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Using data from a longitudinal community-based study, we fitted structural equation models including two latent variables (respectively baseline adiposity and adiposity change after 2 years of follow-up), each being defined, by the four following anthropometric measurement (respectively by their changes): body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness and percent body fat. Latent adiposity variables were hypothesized to depend on a cognitive restraint score, calculated from answers to an eating-behavior questionnaire (TFEQ-18), either cross-sectionally or longitudinally.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We found that high baseline adiposity was associated with a 2-year increase of the cognitive restraint score and no convincing relationship between baseline cognitive restraint and 2-year adiposity change could be established.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The latent variable modeling approach enabled presentation of synthetic results rather than separate regression models and detailed analysis of the causal effects of interest. In the general population, restrained eating appears to be an adaptive response of subjects prone to gaining weight more than as a risk factor for fat-mass increase.</p

    Measurement of the top quark mass using the matrix element technique in dilepton final states

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    We present a measurement of the top quark mass in pp¯ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The data were collected by the D0 experiment corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.7  fb−1. The matrix element technique is applied to tt¯ events in the final state containing leptons (electrons or muons) with high transverse momenta and at least two jets. The calibration of the jet energy scale determined in the lepton+jets final state of tt¯ decays is applied to jet energies. This correction provides a substantial reduction in systematic uncertainties. We obtain a top quark mass of mt=173.93±1.84  GeV

    Studying the Underlying Event in Drell-Yan and High Transverse Momentum Jet Production at the Tevatron

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    We study the underlying event in proton-antiproton collisions by examining the behavior of charged particles (transverse momentum pT > 0.5 GeV/c, pseudorapidity |\eta| < 1) produced in association with large transverse momentum jets (~2.2 fb-1) or with Drell-Yan lepton-pairs (~2.7 fb-1) in the Z-boson mass region (70 < M(pair) < 110 GeV/c2) as measured by CDF at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy. We use the direction of the lepton-pair (in Drell-Yan production) or the leading jet (in high-pT jet production) in each event to define three regions of \eta-\phi space; toward, away, and transverse, where \phi is the azimuthal scattering angle. For Drell-Yan production (excluding the leptons) both the toward and transverse regions are very sensitive to the underlying event. In high-pT jet production the transverse region is very sensitive to the underlying event and is separated into a MAX and MIN transverse region, which helps separate the hard component (initial and final-state radiation) from the beam-beam remnant and multiple parton interaction components of the scattering. The data are corrected to the particle level to remove detector effects and are then compared with several QCD Monte-Carlo models. The goal of this analysis is to provide data that can be used to test and improve the QCD Monte-Carlo models of the underlying event that are used to simulate hadron-hadron collisions.Comment: Submitted to Phys.Rev.

    Limits on Anomalous Triple Gauge Couplings in ppbar Collisions at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV

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    We present a search for anomalous triple gauge couplings (ATGC) in WW and WZ boson production. The boson pairs are produced in ppbar collisions at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV, and the data sample corresponds to 350 pb-1 of integrated luminosity collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. In this search one W decays to leptons, and the other boson (W or Z) decays hadronically. Combining with a previously published CDF measurement of Wgamma boson production yields ATGC limits of -0.18 < lambda < 0.17 and -0.46 < Delta kappa < 0.39 at the 95% confidence level, using a cut-off scale Lambda=1.5 TeV.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures. Submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Measurement of Lifetime and Decay-Width Difference in B0s -> J/psi phi Decays

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    We measure the mean lifetime, tau=2/(Gamma_L+Gamma_H), and the width difference, DeltaGamma=Gamma_L-Gamma_H, of the light and heavy mass eigenstates of the B0s meson, B0sL and B0sH, in B0s -> J/psi phi decays using 1.7 fb^-1 of data collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron ppbar collider. Assuming CP conservation, a good approximation for the B0s system in the Standard Model, we obtain DeltaGamma = 0.076^+0.059_-0.063 (stat.) +- 0.006 (syst.) ps^-1 and tau = 1.52 +- 0.04 (stat.) +- 0.02 (syst.) ps, the most precise measurements to date. Our constraints on the weak phase and DeltaGamma are consistent with CP conservation. Dedicated to the memory of our dear friend and colleague, Michael P. Schmid
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