3,561 research outputs found

    Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides: New and Novel Sources, Characterisation Strategies and Applications

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    peer-reviewedBy 2050, the world population is estimated to reach 9.6 billion, and this growth continues to require more food, particularly proteins. Moreover, the Westernisation of society has led to consumer demand for protein products that taste good and are convenient to consume, but additionally have nutritional and health maintenance and well-being benefits. Proteins provide energy, but additionally have a wide range of functions from enzymatic activities in the body to bioactivities including those associated with heart health, diabetes-type 2-prevention and mental health maintenance; stress relief as well as a plethora of other health beneficial attributes. Furthermore, proteins play an important role in food manufacture and often provide the binding, water- or oil-holding, emulsifying, foaming or other functional attributes required to ensure optimum sensory and taste benefits for the consumer. The purpose of this issue is to highlight current and new protein sources and their associated functional, nutritional and health benefits as well as best practices for quantifying proteins and bioactive peptides in both a laboratory and industry setting. The bioaccessibility, bioavailability and bioactivities of proteins from dairy, cereal and novel sources including seaweeds and insect protein and how they are measured and the relevance of protein quality measurement methods including the Protein Digestibility Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) and Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) are highlighted. In addition, predicted future protein consumption trends and new markets for protein and peptide products are discussed

    Marine Gelatine from Rest Raw Materials

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    pre-printIn recent years, demand for consumption of marine foods, and especially fish, has substantially increased worldwide. The majority of collagen available is sourced from mammalian-derived products. Although fish derived gelatine is a viable alternative to mammalian sourced gelatine, there are some challenges related to the use of fish gelatine including odour, colour, gelling and film forming properties as well as consistency in gelatine amino acid composition. Chemicals used for pre-treatment, as well as extraction conditions such as temperature and time, can influence the length of polypeptide chains that result and the functional properties of the gelatine. Compared to mammalian sources, gelatines derived from fish show notable differences in physical and chemical properties, and great care should be paid to optimization of the production process in order to obtain a product with the best properties for intended applications. The focus of this review is to explore the feasibility of producing gelatine sourced from marine processing by-products using different pre-treatment and extraction strategies with the aim of improving the techno-functional properties of the final product and improving the clean-label status of gelatines. The bioactivities of gelatine hydrolysates are also discussed

    Unity in Diversity Through Art? Joseph Beuys’ Models of Cultural Dialogue

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    This essay proposes the artist Joseph Beuys and his work as paradigmatic for art that through its own diversity of approach can show possibilities for addressing diverse audiences, diverging receptions and modes of participation. It arises from a symposium on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the artist’s death held at the Goethe Institut Dublin, 23 January 2006. The argument focuses on Beuys practice from his Ulysses-Extension to the Migration Workshop at documenta 6, 1977, the FIU, as well as his work (and legacy) in Ireland. Relevant theories include Ecos openness and Adorno’s negative and positive representation, since Beuys works relationship to the Holocaust and trauma turns out to be central. Beuys is offered as predecessor of current discourse such as Bourriaud’s Relational Aesthetics and Documenta11. The article concludes with a new theoretization of participation in culture, Irit Rogoff’s Looking Away. It is supported by Beuys multi-layered, diversity-sustaining practice.Cultural Dialogue, Joseph Beuys, Diversity, Reception, Participation, Migration, documenta, FIU, Ireland, Openness, Holocaust, Trauma, Relational Aesthetics

    Prawn Shell Chitosan Has Anti-Obesogenic Properties, Influencing Both Nutrient Digestibility and Microbial Populations in a Pig Model

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    This study was supported financially (Grant-Aid Agreement No. MFFRI/07/01) under the Sea Change Strategy with the support of the Marine Institute and the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, funded under the National Development Plan 2007–2013.peer-reviewedThe potential of natural products to prevent obesity have been investigated, with evidence to suggest that chitosan has anti-obesity effects. The current experiment investigated the anti-obesity potential of prawn shell derived chitosan on a range of variables relevant to obesity in a pig model. The two dietary treatment groups included in this 63 day study were: T1) basal diet and T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group (70 ± 0.90 kg). The parameter categories which were assessed included: performance, nutrient digestibility, serum leptin concentrations, nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression and gut microbial populations. Pigs offered chitosan had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001), lower ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) (P< 0.05) and reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy and nitrogen (P<0.05) when compared to the basal group. Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene expression was down-regulated in pigs offered chitosan (P = 0.05) relative to the basal diet. Serum leptin concentrations increased (P< 0.05) in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to pigs offered the basal diet. Fatness traits, back-fat depth (mm), fat content (kg), were significantly reduced while lean meat (%) was increased (P<0.05) in chitosan supplemented pigs. Pigs offered chitosan had decreased numbers of Firmicutes in the colon (P <0.05), and Lactobacillus spp. in both the caecum (P <0.05) and colon (P <0.001). Bifidobacteria populations were increased in the caecum of animals offered the chitosan diet (P <0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that prawn shell chitosan has potent anti-obesity/body weight control effects which are mediated through multiple biological systems in vivo.This study was supported financially (Grant-Aid Agreement No. MFFRI/07/01) under the Sea Change Strategy with the support of the Marine Institute and the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, funded under the National Development Plan 2007–2013

    Algal Proteins: Extraction, Application, and Challenges Concerning Production

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    Stephen Bleakley is in receipt of a Teagasc Walsh Fellowship (Grant No. 2016073). This work forms part of the BioAlgae project funded by the Teagasc (Grant No. NFNY6889-142).peer-reviewedPopulation growth combined with increasingly limited resources of arable land and fresh water has resulted in a need for alternative protein sources. Macroalgae (seaweed) and microalgae are examples of under-exploited “crops”. Algae do not compete with traditional food crops for space and resources. This review details the characteristics of commonly consumed algae, as well as their potential for use as a protein source based on their protein quality, amino acid composition, and digestibility. Protein extraction methods applied to algae to date, including enzymatic hydrolysis, physical processes, and chemical extraction and novel methods such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field, and microwave-assisted extraction are discussed. Moreover, existing protein enrichment methods used in the dairy industry and the potential of these methods to generate high value ingredients from algae, such as bioactive peptides and functional ingredients are discussed. Applications of algae in human nutrition, animal feed, and aquaculture are examine

    Multi-Behavioral Endpoint Testing Of An 87-Chemical Compound Library In Freshwater Planarians

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    There is an increased recognition in the field of toxicology of the value of medium-to-high-throughput screening methods using in vitro and alternative animal models. We have previously introduced the asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica as a new alternative animal model and proposed that it is particularly well-suited for the study of developmental neurotoxicology. In this paper, we discuss how we have expanded and automated our screening methodology to allow for fast screening of multiple behavioral endpoints, developmental toxicity, and mortality. Using an 87-compound library provided by the National Toxicology Program (NTP), consisting of known and suspected neurotoxicants, including drugs, flame retardants, industrial chemicals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides and presumptive negative controls, we further evaluate the benefits and limitations of the system for medium-throughput screening, focusing on the technical aspects of the system. We show that, in the context of this library, planarians are the most sensitive to pesticides with 16/16 compounds causing toxicity and the least sensitive to PAHs, with only 5/17 causing toxicity. Furthermore, while none of the presumptive negative controls were bioactive in adult planarians, 2/5, acetaminophen and acetylsalicylic acid, were bioactive in regenerating worms. Notably, these compounds were previously reported as developmentally toxic in mammalian studies. Through parallel screening of adults and developing animals, planarians are thus a useful model to detect such developmental-specific effects, which was observed for 13 chemicals in this library. We use the data and experience gained from this screen to propose guidelines for best practices when using planarians for toxicology screens

    "Peripatetic Joyce - Peripatetic Joyce 'Museums'"

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