639 research outputs found

    Digitizing observations from the 1861‚Äď1875 Met Office Daily Weather Reports using citizen scientist volunteers

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    We describe the transcription and quality control processes for rescuing around 570,000 sub-daily and daily weather observations which were recorded in the UK Met Office Daily Weather Reports during the 1861‚Äď1875 period. These data are from the start of coordinated weather observations and were collected with the aim of making the first-ever weather forecasts. The observations were rescued thanks to 3500 volunteers and include sub-daily sea-level pressure, dry and wet bulb temperatures, daily maximum and minimum temperatures, and daily rainfall amounts from 70 different locations across Western Europe, and one in Canada. We highlight how these observations will be used to fill gaps in existing pressure and temperature datasets and use two case studies to show how the pressure observations will likely better constrain the atmospheric circulation during two severe storms. We also compare a sub-sample of the newly rescued observations with data that were previously digitized for a small number of locations for the same dates, finding good agreement in general, although some discrepancies remain

    Recent applications and potential of near-term (interannual to decadal) climate predictions

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    Following efforts from leading centres for climate forecasting, sustained routine operational near-term climate predictions (NTCP) are now produced that bridge the gap between seasonal forecasts and climate change projections offering the prospect of seamless climate services. Though NTCP is a new area of climate science and active research is taking place to increase understanding of the processes and mechanisms required to produce skillful predictions, this significant technical achievement combines advances in initialisation with ensemble prediction of future climate up to a decade ahead. With a growing NTCP database, the predictability of the evolving externally-forced and internally-generated components of the climate system can now be quantified. Decision-makers in key sectors of the economy can now begin to assess the utility of these products for informing climate risk and for planning adaptation and resilience strategies up to a decade into the future. Here, case studies are presented from finance and economics, water management, agriculture and fisheries management demonstrating the emerging utility and potential of operational NTCP to inform strategic planning across a broad range of applications in key sectors of the global economy

    Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor sparing regimen with once daily integrase inhibitor plus boosted darunavir is non-inferior to standard of care in virologically-suppressed children and adolescents living with HIV ‚Äď Week 48 results of the randomised SMILE Penta-17-ANRS 152 clinical trial

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    IPCC, 2023: Climate Change 2023: Synthesis Report, Summary for Policymakers. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, H. Lee and J. Romero (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland.

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    This Synthesis Report (SYR) of the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) summarises the state of knowledge of climate change, its widespread impacts and risks, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. It integrates the main findings of the Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) based on contributions from the three Working Groups1 , and the three Special Reports. The summary for Policymakers (SPM) is structured in three parts: SPM.A Current Status and Trends, SPM.B Future Climate Change, Risks, and Long-Term Responses, and SPM.C Responses in the Near Term.This report recognizes the interdependence of climate, ecosystems and biodiversity, and human societies; the value of diverse forms of knowledge; and the close linkages between climate change adaptation, mitigation, ecosystem health, human well-being and sustainable development, and reflects the increasing diversity of actors involved in climate action. Based on scientific understanding, key findings can be formulated as statements of fact or associated with an assessed level of confidence using the IPCC calibrated language

    The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

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    Twenty-six years ago a small committee report, building on earlier studies, expounded a compelling and poetic vision for the future of astronomy, calling for an infrared-optimized space telescope with an aperture of at least 4m4m. With the support of their governments in the US, Europe, and Canada, 20,000 people realized that vision as the 6.5m6.5m James Webb Space Telescope. A generation of astronomers will celebrate their accomplishments for the life of the mission, potentially as long as 20 years, and beyond. This report and the scientific discoveries that follow are extended thank-you notes to the 20,000 team members. The telescope is working perfectly, with much better image quality than expected. In this and accompanying papers, we give a brief history, describe the observatory, outline its objectives and current observing program, and discuss the inventions and people who made it possible. We cite detailed reports on the design and the measured performance on orbit.Comment: Accepted by PASP for the special issue on The James Webb Space Telescope Overview, 29 pages, 4 figure

    The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

    No full text
    Twenty-six years ago a small committee report, building on earlier studies, expounded a compelling and poetic vision for the future of astronomy, calling for an infrared-optimized space telescope with an aperture of at least 4 m. With the support of their governments in the US, Europe, and Canada, 20,000 people realized that vision as the 6.5 m James Webb Space Telescope. A generation of astronomers will celebrate their accomplishments for the life of the mission, potentially as long as 20 yr, and beyond. This report and the scientific discoveries that follow are extended thank-you notes to the 20,000 team members. The telescope is working perfectly, with much better image quality than expected. In this and accompanying papers, we give a brief history, describe the observatory, outline its objectives and current observing program, and discuss the inventions and people who made it possible. We cite detailed reports on the design and the measured performance on orbit

    Using early extremes to place the 2022 UK heat waves into historical context

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    As global surface temperatures continue to rise, both the duration and the intensity of heat waves across most land areas are expected to increase. The 2022 European summer broke a number of temperature records where a new record daily maximum temperature of 40.3¬įC was reached on 19th July making it the hottest July heat wave event in the UK. This paper aims to detect and analyse historical heat wave events, particularly prior to 1927 and compare these with recent events, particularly, 2022, which featured four summer heat wave events in the UK. This allows us to understand how noteworthy historical extremes are in comparison to those in recent decades, to place modern events into historical context, and to extend the sample of extreme events. Summer heat wave events have been detected between 1878 and 2022 from long station data in the UK. Heat wave extent, duration, and intensity have been analysed to compare past heat waves to the recent 2022 heat waves. For each of the summer months at least one of the top 10 most intense events between 1878 and 2022 occurred in the earliest third of the dataset (before 1927) emphasising the value of analysing early heat events. In all detected events, the anomalous UK heat was part of large-scale European extreme heat when examining 20th-century reanalysis data, associated with a high-pressure system. The 2022 July event resembles in pattern of warming and circulation some earlier events, for example, in 1925. While there is a clear trend in the monthly data and the overall frequency of anomalously hot days, heat wave activity on daily scales even in the period 1878 and 1926 is considerable and in some cases comparable to modern heat wave events in the UK. The most intense events detected led to societal impacts based on UK newspaper articles from the period including impacts on the agricultural sector, health impacts, and travel disruptions, broadly comparable to impacts from recent events

    Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker initiation on organ support-free days in patients hospitalized with COVID-19