2,892 research outputs found

    Comparisons of spectra determined using detector atoms and spatial correlation functions

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    We show how two level atoms can be used to determine the local time dependent spectrum. The method is applied to a one dimensional cavity. The spectrum obtained is compared with the mode spectrum determined using spatially filtered second order correlation functions. The spectra obtained using two level atoms give identical results with the mode spectrum. One benefit of the method is that only one time averages are needed. It is also more closely related to a realistic measurement scheme than any other definition of a time dependent spectrum.Comment: 8 pages, 8 figure

    An open systems approach to calculating time dependent spectra

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    A new method to calculate the spectrum using cascaded open systems and master equations is presented. The method uses two state analyzer atoms which are coupled to the system of interest, whose spectrum of radiation is read from the excitation of these analyzer atoms. The ordinary definitions of a spectrum uses two-time averages and Fourier-transforms. The present method uses only one-time averages. The method can be used to calculate time dependent as well as stationary spectra.Comment: 8 pages, revtex, 18 figures, to be published in J.Mod.Op

    Oppilaiden tuottavan kirjoittamisen taso toisella luokalla

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    Quantum description of light pulse scattering on a single atom in waveguides

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    We present a time dependent quantum calculation of the scattering of a few-photon pulse on a single atom. The photon wave packet is assumed to propagate in a transversely strongly confined geometry, which ensures strong atom-light coupling and allows a quasi 1D treatment. The amplitude and phase of the transmitted, reflected and transversely scattered part of the wave packet strongly depend on the pulse length (bandwidth) and energy. For a transverse mode size of the order of λ2\lambda^2, we find nonlinear behavior for a few photons already, or even for a single photon. In a second step we study the collision of two such wave packets at the atomic site and find striking differences between Fock state and coherent state wave packets of the same photon number.Comment: to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Measurement of electroweak WZ boson production and search for new physics in WZ plus two jets events in pp collisions at root s=13 TeV

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    A measurement of WZ electroweak (EW) vector boson scattering is presented. The measurement is performed in the leptonic decay modes WZ -> l nu l'l', where l, l' = e, mu. The analysis is based on a data sample of proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV at the LHC collected with the CMS detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1) . The WZ plus two jet production cross section is measured in fiducial regions with enhanced contributions from EW production and found to be consistent with standard model predictions. The EW WZ production in association with two jets is measured with an observed (expected) significance of 2.2 (2.5) standard deviations. Constraints on charged Higgs boson production and on anomalous quartic gauge couplings in terms of dimension-eight effective field theory operators are also presented. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.Peer reviewe

    Study of jet quenching with isolated-photon plus jet correlations in PbPb and pp collisions at root s(NN)=5.02 TeV

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    Measurements of azimuthal angle and transverse momentum (p(T)) correlations of isolated photons and associated jets are reported for pp and PbPb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. For events containing a leading isolated photon with p(T)(gamma) > 40 GeV/c and an associated jet with p(T)(jet) > 30 GeV/c, the photon+jet azimuthal correlation and p(T) imbalance in PbPb collisions are studied as functions of collision centrality and p(T)(gamma). The results are compared to pp reference data collected at the same collision energy and to predictions from several theoretical models for parton energy loss. No evidence of broadening of the photon+jet azimuthal correlations is observed, while the ratio p(T)(jet)/p(T)(gamma) decreases significantly for PbPb data relative to the pp reference. All models considered agree within uncertainties with the data. The number of associated jets per photon with p(T)(gamma) > 80GeV/c is observed to be shifted towards lower p(T)(jet) in central PbPb collisions compared to pp collisions. (C) 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.Peer reviewe

    Search for Z gamma resonances using leptonic and hadronic final states in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV

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    A search is presented for resonances decaying to a Z boson and a photon. The analysis is based on data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1), and collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2016. Two decay modes of the Z boson are investigated. In the leptonic channels, the Z boson candidates are reconstructed using electron or muon pairs. In the hadronic channels, they are identified using a large-radius jet, containing either light-quark or b quark decay products of the Z boson, via jet substructure and advanced b quark tagging techniques. The results from these channels are combined and interpreted in terms of upper limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction to Z gamma for narrow and broad spin-0 resonances with masses between 0.35 and 4.0 TeV, providing thereby the most stringent limits on such resonances.Peer reviewe

    Combined search for electroweak production of charginos and neutralinos in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV

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    A statistical combination of several searches for the electroweak production of charginos and neutralinos is presented. All searches use proton-proton collision data at A root s = 13 TeV, recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2016 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). In addition to the combination of previous searches, a targeted analysis requiring three or more charged leptons (electrons or muons) is presented, focusing on the challenging scenario in which the difference in mass between the two least massive neutralinos is approximately equal to the mass of the Z boson. The results are interpreted in simplified models of chargino-neutralino or neutralino pair production. For chargino-neutralino production, in the case when the lightest neutralino is massless, the combination yields an observed (expected) limit at the 95% confidence level on the chargino mass of up to 650 (570) GeV, improving upon the individual analysis limits by up to 40 GeV. If the mass difference between the two least massive neutralinos is approximately equal to the mass of the Z boson in the chargino-neutralino model, the targeted search requiring three or more leptons obtains observed and expected exclusion limits of around 225 GeV on the second neutralino mass and 125 GeV on the lightest neutralino mass, improving the observed limit by about 60 GeV in both masses compared to the previous CMS result. In the neutralino pair production model, the combined observed (expected) exclusion limit on the neutralino mass extends up to 650-750 (550-750) GeV, depending on the branching fraction assumed. This extends the observed exclusion achieved in the individual analyses by up to 200 GeV. The combined result additionally excludes some intermediate gaps in the mass coverage of the individual analyses.Peer reviewe

    Comparing transverse momentum balance of b jet pairs in pp and PbPb collisions at root s(NN)=5.02 TeV

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    The transverse momentum balance of pairs of back-to-back b quark jets in PbPb and pp collisions recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC is reported. The center-of-mass energy in both collision systems is 5.02 TeV per nucleon pair. Compared to the pp collision baseline, b quark jets have a larger imbalance in the most central PbPb collisions, as expected from the jet quenching effect. The data are also compared to the corresponding measurement with inclusive dijets. In the most central collisions, the imbalance of b quark dijets is comparable to that of inclusive dijets.Peer reviewe
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