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    Recalibrating machine learning for social biases: demonstrating a new methodology through a case study classifying gender biases in archival documentation

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    This thesis proposes a recalibration of Machine Learning for social biases to minimize harms from existing approaches and practices in the field. Prioritizing quality over quantity, accuracy over efficiency, representativeness over convenience, and situated thinking over universal thinking, the thesis demonstrates an alternative approach to creating Machine Learning models. Drawing on GLAM, the Humanities, the Social Sciences, and Design, the thesis focuses on understanding and communicating biases in a specific use case. 11,888 metadata descriptions from the University of Edinburgh Heritage Collections' Archives catalog were manually annotated for gender biases and text classification models were then trained on the resulting dataset of 55,260 annotations. Evaluations of the models' performance demonstrates that annotating gender biases can be automated; however, the subjectivity of bias as a concept complicates the generalizability of any one approach. The contributions are: (1) an interdisciplinary and participatory Bias-Aware Methodology, (2) a Taxonomy of Gendered and Gender Biased Language, (3) data annotated for gender biased language, (4) gender biased text classification models, and (5) a human-centered approach to model evaluation. The contributions have implications for Machine Learning, demonstrating how bias is inherent to all data and models; more specifically for Natural Language Processing, providing an annotation taxonomy, annotated datasets and classification models for analyzing gender biased language at scale; for the Gallery, Library, Archives, and Museum sector, offering guidance to institutions seeking to reconcile with histories of marginalizing communities through their documentation practices; and for historians, who utilize cultural heritage documentation to study and interpret the past. Through a real-world application of the Bias-Aware Methodology in a case study, the thesis illustrates the need to shift away from removing social biases and towards acknowledging them, creating data and models that surface the uncertainty and multiplicity characteristic of human societies