1,059 research outputs found

    Dynamic Virtualized Deployment of Particle Physics Environments on a High Performance Computing Cluster

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    The NEMO High Performance Computing Cluster at the University of Freiburg has been made available to researchers of the ATLAS and CMS experiments. Users access the cluster from external machines connected to the World-wide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). This paper describes how the full software environment of the WLCG is provided in a virtual machine image. The interplay between the schedulers for NEMO and for the external clusters is coordinated through the ROCED service. A cloud computing infrastructure is deployed at NEMO to orchestrate the simultaneous usage by bare metal and virtualized jobs. Through the setup, resources are provided to users in a transparent, automatized, and on-demand way. The performance of the virtualized environment has been evaluated for particle physics applications

    Dynamic provisioning of a HEP computing infrastructure on a shared hybrid HPC system

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    Experiments in high-energy physics (HEP) rely on elaborate hardware, software and computing systems to sustain the high data rates necessary to study rare physics processes. The Institut fr Experimentelle Kernphysik (EKP) at KIT is a member of the CMS and Belle II experiments, located at the LHC and the Super-KEKB accelerators, respectively. These detectors share the requirement, that enormous amounts of measurement data must be processed and analyzed and a comparable amount of simulated events is required to compare experimental results with theoretical predictions. Classical HEP computing centers are dedicated sites which support multiple experiments and have the required software pre-installed. Nowadays, funding agencies encourage research groups to participate in shared HPC cluster models, where scientist from different domains use the same hardware to increase synergies. This shared usage proves to be challenging for HEP groups, due to their specialized software setup which includes a custom OS (often Scientific Linux), libraries and applications. To overcome this hurdle, the EKP and data center team of the University of Freiburg have developed a system to enable the HEP use case on a shared HPC cluster. To achieve this, an OpenStack-based virtualization layer is installed on top of a bare-metal cluster. While other user groups can run their batch jobs via the Moab workload manager directly on bare-metal, HEP users can request virtual machines with a specialized machine image which contains a dedicated operating system and software stack. In contrast to similar installations, in this hybrid setup, no static partitioning of the cluster into a physical and virtualized segment is required. As a unique feature, the placement of the virtual machine on the cluster nodes is scheduled by Moab and the job lifetime is coupled to the lifetime of the virtual machine. This allows for a seamless integration with the jobs sent by other user groups and honors the fairshare policies of the cluster. The developed thin integration layer between OpenStack and Moab can be adapted to other batch servers and virtualization systems, making the concept also applicable for other cluster operators. This contribution will report on the concept and implementation of an OpenStack-virtualized cluster used for HEP work ows. While the full cluster will be installed in spring 2016, a test-bed setup with 800 cores has been used to study the overall system performance and dedicated HEP jobs were run in a virtualized environment over many weeks. Furthermore, the dynamic integration of the virtualized worker nodes, depending on the workload at the institute\u27s computing system, will be described

    Green on-site power generation : environmental considerations on small-scale biomass gasifier fuel-cell CHP systems for the residential sector

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    Contemporary combined heat and power (CHP) systems are often based on fossil fuels, such as natural gas or heating oil. Thereby, small-scale cogeneration systems are intended to replace or complement traditional heating equipment in residential buildings. In addition to space heating or domestic hot water supply, electricity is generated for the own consumption of the building or to be sold to the electric power grid. The adaptation of CHP-systems to renewable energy sources, such as solid biomass applications is challenging, because of feedstock composition and heat integration. Nevertheless, in particular smallscale CHP technologies based on biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer significant potentials, also regarding important co-benefits, such as security of energy supply as well as emission reductions in terms of greenhouse gases or air pollutants. Besides emission or air quality regulations, the development of CHP technologies for clean on-site small-scale power generation is also strongly incentivised by energy efficiency policies for residential appliances, such as e.g. Ecodesign and Energy Labelling in the European Union (EU). Furthermore, solid residual biomass as renewable local energy source is best suited for decentralised operations such as micro-grids, also to reduce long-haul fuel transports. By this means such distributed energy resource technology can become an essential part of a forward-looking strategy for net zero energy or even smart plus energy buildings. In this context, this paper presents preliminary impact assessment results and most recent environmental considerations from the EU Horizon 2020 project "FlexiFuel-SOFC" (Grant Agreement no. 641229), which aims at the development of a novel CHP system, consisting of a fuel flexible smallscale fixed-bed updraft gasifier technology, a compact gas cleaning concept and an SOFC for electricity generation. Besides sole system efficiencies, in particular resource and emission aspects of solid fuel combustion and net electricity effects need to be considered. The latter means that vastly less emission intensive gasifier-fuel cell CHP technologies cause significant less fuel related emissions than traditional heating systems, an effect which is further strengthened by avoided emissions from more emission intensive traditional grid electricity generation. As promising result, operation "net" emissions of such on-site generation installations may be virtually zero or even negative. Additionally, this paper scopes central regulatory instruments for small-scale CHP systems in the EU to discuss ways to improve the framework for system deployment

    Implementation of GENFIT2 as an experiment independent track-fitting framework

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    The GENFIT toolkit, initially developed at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen, has been extended and modified to be more general and user-friendly. The new GENFIT, called GENFIT2, provides track representation, track-fitting algorithms and graphic visualization of tracks and detectors, and it can be used for any experiment that determines parameters of charged particle trajectories from spacial coordinate measurements. Based on general Kalman filter routines, it can perform extrapolations of track parameters and covariance matrices. It also provides interfaces to Millepede II for alignment purposes, and RAVE for the vertex finder. Results of an implementation of GENFIT2 in basf2 and PandaRoot software frameworks are presented here.Comment: 41 pages 24 figures, 1 table. Paper submitted to NI

    Results from the Randomized Controlled Multicenter German Algorithm Project 3 Trial

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    Background Treatment algorithms are considered as key to improve outcomes by enhancing the quality of care. This is the first randomized controlled study to evaluate the clinical effect of algorithm-guided treatment in inpatients with major depressive disorder. Methods Inpatients, aged 18 to 70 years with major depressive disorder from 10 German psychiatric departments were randomized to 5 different treatment arms (from 2000 to 2005), 3 of which were standardized stepwise drug treatment algorithms (ALGO). The fourth arm proposed medications and provided less specific recommendations based on a computerized documentation and expert system (CDES), the fifth arm received treatment as usual (TAU). ALGO included 3 different second-step strategies: lithium augmentation (ALGO LA), antidepressant dose-escalation (ALGO DE), and switch to a different antidepressant (ALGO SW). Time to remission (21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale ≤9) was the primary outcome. Results Time to remission was significantly shorter for ALGO DE (n=91) compared with both TAU (n=84) (HR=1.67; P=.014) and CDES (n=79) (HR=1.59; P=.031) and ALGO SW (n=89) compared with both TAU (HR=1.64; P=.018) and CDES (HR=1.56; P=.038). For both ALGO LA (n=86) and ALGO DE, fewer antidepressant medications were needed to achieve remission than for CDES or TAU (P<.001). Remission rates at discharge differed across groups; ALGO DE had the highest (89.2%) and TAU the lowest rates (66.2%). Conclusions A highly structured algorithm-guided treatment is associated with shorter times and fewer medication changes to achieve remission with depressed inpatients than treatment as usual or computerized medication choice guidance

    EGO-1, a Putative RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase, Is Required for Heterochromatin Assembly on Unpaired DNA during C. elegans Meiosis

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    During meiosis in C. elegans, unpaired chromosomes and chromosomal regions accumulate high levels of histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2), a modification associated with facultative heterochromatin assembly and the resulting transcriptional silencing [1, 2]. Meiotic silencing of unpaired DNA may be a widely conserved genome defense mechanism [3–5]. The mechanisms of meiotic silencing remain unclear, although both transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes are implicated [3–5]. Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) function in development and RNA-mediated silencing in many species [3, 6, 7] and in heterochromatin assembly in S. pombe [3, 8]. There are four C. elegans RdRPs, including two with known germline functions. EGO-1 is required for fertility and robust germline RNAi [9–11]. RRF-3 acts genetically to repress RNAi and is required for normal meiosis and spermatogenesis at elevated temperatures [12] (S. L’Hernault, personal communication). Among C. elegans RdRPs, we find that only EGO-1 is required for H3K9me2 enrichment on unpaired chromosomal regions during meiosis. This H3K9me2 enrichment does not require Dicer or Drosha nuclease or any of several other proteins required for RNAi. ego-1 interacts genetically with him-17, another regulator of chromatin and meiosis [13], to promote germline development. We conclude that EGO-1 is an essential component of meiotic silencing in C. elegans

    The track finding algorithm of the Belle II vertex detectors

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    The Belle II experiment is a high energy multi purpose particle detector operated at the asymmetric e+e-- collier SuperKEKB in Tsukuba (Japan). In this work we describe the algorithm performing the pattern recognition for inner tracking detector which consists of two layers of pixel detectors and four layers of double sided silicon strip detectors arranged around the interaction region. The track finding algorithm will be used both during the High Level Trigger on-line track reconstruction and during the off-line full reconstruction. It must provide good efficiency down to momenta as low as 50 MeV/c where material effects are sizeable even in an extremely thin detector as the VXD. In addition it has to be able to cope with the high occupancy of the Belle II detectors due to the background. The underlying concept of the track finding algorithm, as well as details of the implementation are outlined. The algorithm is proven to run with good performance on simulated Y (4S) â\u86\u92 BB events with an efficiency for reconstructing tracks of above 90% over a wide range of momentum

    現代語の終助詞「さ」の機能に関する考察

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    本稿では,長崎(1998)の追調査として,昭和初期から現代に至る終助詞「さ」の機能的変遷を観察した。長崎(1998)では,江戸語における終助詞「さ」の機能を調査し,その主たる機能は断定の働きであったこと,またこの働きが,明治から大正にかけて,現在のように情意表現を主体とした終助詞の機能に移行していく経過を報告した。本調査では,終助詞「さ」を,昭和前期(第二次大戦前),昭和後期(第二次大戦後),平成期に分けて,その機能的変遷を観察した。昭和前期には,終助詞「さ」の用法として,江戸語に見られた丁寧な会話にも使用される用例が見られた。特に江戸語の名残のある女性の言葉遣いの中心その用法が見られた。戦後は,終助詞「さ」の女性の用例は減少し,用言に接続する用例加増加し,「さ」は主に男性が使用する終助詞として定着した。平成に入ると,「さ」は終助詞としての使用より,間投助詞としての使用が目立つようになる。特に若い世代では終助詞「さ」は,男性にもあまり使用されなくなっている。この結果から,今後「さ」の終助詞としての機能は,衰退していくことが予想される
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