2,104 research outputs found

    BaryoGEN, a Monte Carlo Generator for Sphaleron-Like Transitions in Proton-Proton Collisions

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    Sphaleron and instanton solutions of the Standard Model provide violation of baryon and lepton numbers and could lead to spectacular events at the LHC or future colliders. Certain models of new physics can also lead to sphaleron-like vacuum transitions. This nonperturbative physics could be relevant to the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe. We have developed BaryoGEN, an event generator that facilitates the exploration of sphaleron-like transitions in proton-proton collisions with minimal assumptions. BaryoGEN outputs standard Les Houches Event files that can be processed by PYTHIA, and the code is publicly available. We also discuss various approaches to experimental searches for such transitions in proton-proton collisions

    A Systematic Study of the Decays of Charmed D Mesons

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    A large sample of D mesons, produced by the decay of the Ψ(3770) and observed by the Mark III detector at SPEAR, forms the basis for a study of the decays of charmed D+ and D0 mesons. Many Cabibbo-allowed and Cabibbo-suppressed decays are observed. When normalized by a new, absolute technique, the branching ratios appear significantly higher than those reported by previous experiments. No evidence is found for specific final states from D0 decay which are indicative of non-spectator W-exchange diagrams: limits are quoted. Finally, the inclusive semileptonic branching fractions of charged and neutral D mesons are measured by observation of electrons in the recoil from fully reconstructed hadronic D decays of known charm. By neglecting the contribution of Cabibbo-suppressed decays to the total decay widths, the ratio of these branching fractions can be interpreted as the ratio of D+ and D0 lifetimes, thus confirming the inequality of lifetimes observed by direct decay length experiments. The observed pattern of hadronic decays appears to favor modification of the spectator model over non-spectator processes as the main source of the lifetime difference.</p

    Indigenous free prior informed consent: a case for self determination in World Heritage nomination processes

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    Free prior informed consent is a critical concept in enacting the rights of Indige- nous People according to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indig- enous Peoples. This paper outlines a case for the inclusion of free prior informed consent in World Heritage nomination processes and examines issues that are problematic when enacting free prior informed consent. Case research was used to analyse current issues in the potential nomination of certain areas of Cape York Peninsula, Australia. The authors’ reflexive engagement within this case offers insights into the praxis of developing a World Heritage nomina- tion consent process. The outcomes of this research were: preconditions need to be addressed to avoid self-exclusion by indigenous representative organisations; the nature of consent needs to account for issues of representation and Indige- nous ways of decision making; the power of veto needs to have formal recogni- tion in the nomination process; and prioritising self-determination within free prior informed consent ensures the intent of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The paper contributes to the human rights agenda of Indigenous People and conservation management processes by help- ing address the issues that will be raised during a World Heritage nomination process

    Two Cases of Hypertensive Encephalopathy Involving the Brainstem

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    Hypertensive encephalopathy is a medical emergency whose clinical manifestations are usually associated with bilateral parieto-occipital lesions. Predominant brainstem edema without accompanying occipital lesions is rare in hypertensive encephalopathy and usually occurs in patients with secondary hypertension. We describe the clinical and radiological features of two patients with reversible hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. Both patients had chronic renal failure, but the extensive neuroimaging abnormalities revealed few clinical features of brainstem involvement. The clinical findings and neuroimaging abnormalities resolved once the hypertension was treated

    Caffeine and Progression of Parkinson Disease: A Deleterious Interaction With Creatine.

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    OBJECTIVE: Increased caffeine intake is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson disease (PD) and is neuroprotective in mouse models of PD. However, in a previous study, an exploratory analysis suggested that, in patients taking creatine, caffeine intake was associated with a faster rate of progression. In the current study, we investigated the association of caffeine with the rate of progression of PD and the interaction of this association with creatine intake. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a large phase 3 placebo-controlled clinical study of creatine as a potentially disease-modifying agent in PD. Subjects were recruited for this study from 45 movement disorders centers across the United States and Canada. A total of 1741 subjects with PD participated in the primary clinical study, and caffeine intake data were available for 1549 of these subjects. The association of caffeine intake with rate of progression of PD as measured by the change in the total Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale score and the interaction of this association with creatine intake were assessed. RESULTS: Caffeine intake was not associated with the rate of progression of PD in the main analysis, but higher caffeine intake was associated with significantly faster progression among subjects taking creatine. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest and longest study conducted to date that addresses the association of caffeine with the rate of progression of PD. These data indicate a potentially deleterious interaction between caffeine and creatine with respect to the rate of progression of PD

    The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization

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    Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome sequences of Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, two ecologically dominant bumblebees and widely utilized study species. Comparing these new genomes to those of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera and other Hymenoptera, we identify deeply conserved similarities, as well as novelties key to the biology of these organisms. Some honeybee genome features thought to underpin advanced eusociality are also present in bumblebees, indicating an earlier evolution in the bee lineage. Xenobiotic detoxification and immune genes are similarly depauperate in bumblebees and honeybees, and multiple categories of genes linked to social organization, including development and behavior, show high conservation. Key differences identified include a bias in bumblebee chemoreception towards gustation from olfaction, and striking differences in microRNAs, potentially responsible for gene regulation underlying social and other traits. Conclusions: These two bumblebee genomes provide a foundation for post-genomic research on these key pollinators and insect societies. Overall, gene repertoires suggest that the route to advanced eusociality in bees was mediated by many small changes in many genes and processes, and not by notable expansion or depauperation

    Do We Practice What We Preach? A Review of Actual Clinical Practice with Regards to Preconception Care Guidelines

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    Objectives: To review what past studies have found with regard to existing clinical practices and approaches to providing preconception care. Methods: A literature review between 1966 and September 2005 was performed using Medline. Key words included preconception care, preconception counseling, preconception surveys, practice patterns, pregnancy outcomes, prepregnancy planning, and prepregnancy surveys. Results: There are no current national recommendations that fully address preconception care; as a result, there is wide variability in what is provided clinically under the rubric of preconception care. Conclusions: In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sponsored a national summit regarding preconception care and efforts are underway to develop a uniform set of national recommendations and guidelines for preconception care. Understanding how preconception care is presently incorporated and manifested in current medical practices should help in the development of these national guidelines. Knowing where, how, and why some specific preconception recommendations have been successfully adopted and translated into clinical practice, as well as barriers to implementation of other recommendations or guidelines, is vitally important in developing an overarching set of national guidelines. Ultimately, the success of these recommendations rests on their ability to influence and shape women's health policy

    A Novel Autosomal Dominant Inclusion Body Myopathy Linked to 7q22.1-31.1

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    We describe a novel autosomal dominant hereditary inclusion body myopathy (HIBM) that clinically mimics limb girdle muscular dystrophy in a Chinese family. We performed a detailed clinical assessment of 36 individuals spanning four generations. The age of onset ranged from the 30s to the 50s. Hip girdle, neck flexion and axial muscle weakness were involved at an early stage. This disease progressed slowly, and a shoulder girdle weakness appeared later in the disease course. Muscle biopsies showed necrotic, regenerating, and rimmed vacuolated fibers as well as congophilic inclusions in some of the fibers. Electron micrograph revealed cytoplasmic inclusions of 15–21 nm filaments. A genomewide scan and haplotype analyses were performed using an Illumina Linkage-12 DNA Analysis Kit (average spacing 0.58 cM), which traced the disease to a new locus on chromosome 7q22.1–31.1 with a maximum multi-point LOD score of 3.65. The critical locus for this unique disorder, which is currently referred to as hereditary inclusion body myopathy 4 (HIBM4), spans 8.78 Mb and contains 65 genes. This localization raises the possibility that one of the genes clustered within this region may be involved in this disorder