38 research outputs found

    Les peuples nomades d’Europe dans la littĂ©rature. L'invention d'un discours d'exclusion entre fascination et mĂ©pris

    No full text
    L'article suivant traite, d'une part, les diverses manifestations de “Tsiganes” dans la littĂ©rature, ses formes de prĂ©sentation, les discours apparentĂ©s et ses stĂ©rĂ©otypes. D'autre part, il porte sur de la production littĂ©raire d'auteurs qui se disent eux-mĂȘmes “Tsiganes,” “Rroms,” “Manouches,” “YĂ©nisch” etc., une affectation qui soulĂšve d'emblĂ©e plusieurs problĂšmes terminologiques et idĂ©ologiques . L'article se veut une contribution aux Ă©tudes littĂ©raires contextuelles et socio-historiques. Le corpus analysĂ© comprend des textes allemands, français, anglais et hongrois datant du dĂ©but du XIXe Ă  la fin du XXe siĂšcle. Il traite les contextes et discours pertinents pendant les diffĂ©rentes Ă©poques, allant du mythe de l'Ăąge d'or Ă  la figure du "bon sauvage", en passant par les discours paternalistes ou ouvertement racistes jusqu'aux diverses formes de contestation. L'article se termine par une prĂ©sentation de quelques textes exemplaires d'auteurs rroms de la seconde moitiĂ© du XXe siĂšcle, dans lesquels Ă©mergent diverses attitudes nouvelles telles qu'une certaine esthĂ©tisation et idĂ©alisation du "Gitan", mais aussi la revendication et une marginalitĂ© plus ou moins rĂ©ussie.L'article suivant traite, d'une part, les diverses manifestations de “Tsiganes” dans la littĂ©rature, ses formes de prĂ©sentation, les discours apparentĂ©s et ses stĂ©rĂ©otypes. D'autre part, il porte sur de la production littĂ©raire d'auteurs qui se disent eux-mĂȘmes “Tsiganes,” “Rroms,” “Manouches,” “YĂ©nisch” etc., une affectation qui soulĂšve d'emblĂ©e plusieurs problĂšmes terminologiques et idĂ©ologiques . L'article se veut une contribution aux Ă©tudes littĂ©raires contextuelles et socio-historiques. Le corpus analysĂ© comprend des textes allemands, français, anglais et hongrois datant du dĂ©but du XIXe Ă  la fin du XXe siĂšcle. Il traite les contextes et discours pertinents pendant les diffĂ©rentes Ă©poques, allant du mythe de l'Ăąge d'or Ă  la figure du "bon sauvage", en passant par les discours paternalistes ou ouvertement racistes jusqu'aux diverses formes de contestation. L'article se termine par une prĂ©sentation de quelques textes exemplaires d'auteurs rroms de la seconde moitiĂ© du XXe siĂšcle, dans lesquels Ă©mergent diverses attitudes nouvelles telles qu'une certaine esthĂ©tisation et idĂ©alisation du "Gitan", mais aussi la revendication et une marginalitĂ© plus ou moins rĂ©ussie

    Machines: to Have or to Be? Small (Trans-, Post-, Bio-) humanistic Thought Experiments

    Get PDF
    When we think about “machines”, or “robots”, or “AI”, what comes to our minds is generally an extension of our common relationship with objects in our humane and mundane world: there is a clear distinction between the subject, “we”, and the object. Upon review of some of the most important literary trends of the last centuries, this article invites us to consider the prevalence of this classical ontological division, taking into consideration examples such as Frankenstein, the “brain in a vat” thought experiment, and the last advances towards the reality of “cyborg” beings. The question behind the article bring us to consider to what extent an absolute division between us and machines is still a thing in our days

    Doxorubicin induces cardiotoxicity in a pluripotent stem cell model of aggressive B cell lymphoma cancer patients

    Get PDF
    Cancer therapies with anthracyclines have been shown to induce cardiovascular complications. The aims of this study were to establish an in vitro induced pluripotent stem cell model (iPSC) of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (ACT) from patients with an aggressive form of B-cell lymphoma and to examine whether doxorubicin (DOX)-treated ACT-iPSC cardiomyocytes (CM) can recapitulate the clinical features exhibited by patients, and thus help uncover a DOX-dependent pathomechanism. ACT-iPSC CM generated from individuals with CD20(+) B-cell lymphoma who had received high doses of DOX and suffered cardiac dysfunction were studied and compared to control-iPSC CM from cancer survivors without cardiac symptoms. In cellular studies, ACT-iPSC CM were persistently more susceptible to DOX toxicity including augmented disorganized myofilament structure, changed mitochondrial shape, and increased apoptotic events. Consistently, ACT-iPSC CM and cardiac fibroblasts isolated from fibrotic human ACT myocardium exhibited higher DOX-dependent reactive oxygen species. In functional studies, Ca(2+) transient amplitude of ACT-iPSC CM was reduced compared to control cells, and diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak was DOX-dependently increased. This could be explained by overactive CaMKIIÎŽ in ACT CM. Together with DOX-dependent augmented proarrhythmic cellular triggers and prolonged action potentials in ACT CM, this suggests a cellular link to arrhythmogenic events and contractile dysfunction especially found in ACT engineered human myocardium. CamKIIÎŽ inhibition prevented proarrhythmic triggers in ACT. In contrast, control CM upregulated SERCA2a expression in a DOX-dependent manner, possibly to avoid heart failure conditions. In conclusion, we developed the first human patient-specific stem cell model of DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction from patients with B-cell lymphoma. Our results suggest that DOX-induced stress resulted in arrhythmogenic events associated with contractile dysfunction and finally in heart failure after persistent stress activation in ACT patients. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00395-022-00918-7

    Habitusreflexion - Mythos oder hochschuldidaktischer Anspruch?

    No full text
    te Poel K. Habitusreflexion - Mythos oder hochschuldidaktischer Anspruch? In: Kösel S, Unger T, Hering S, Haupt S, eds. Mythos Reflexion. Zur pÀdagogischen Verhandlung von Reflexion zwischen Notwendigkeit und Unsicherheit. Leverkusen: Barbara Budrich; Accepted

    Kein Platz fĂŒr mein Ethos. Zum SpannungsverhĂ€ltnis von ProfessionalitĂ€t, Ungewissheit und SubjektivitĂ€t

    Get PDF
    Der Beitrag thematisiert, welche Herausforderungen und Erwartungen mit der Entwicklung eines kompetenz- und gemeinwohlorientierten Ethos in der Lehrer*innenbildung verbunden sind. Die „WidersprĂŒchlichkeit der angeordneten und ĂŒberwachten subjektiven Aneignung“ zeigen die Autorinnen am Beispiel des Referendariats. Sie arbeiten heraus, dass sich die individuelle Entwicklung eines professionellen Ethos immer situativ vollzieht, ein Ausgang der Aneignung ungewiss bleibt und dass sich deshalb der Aneignungsprozess einer exakten Beurteilung durch Ausbildner*innen entzieht. (DIPF/Orig.

    Auf dem Weg. Aachener Kooperationsverbund

    Get PDF
    Ausgehend von der Unzufriedenheit der Lehrenden und Studierenden in den Bildungswissenschaften haben wir uns auf den Weg gemacht, die Aachener Lehrer*innenbildung zu verĂ€ndern. Unsere zentrale Frage ist dabei: Wieviel Freiheit fĂŒr Persönlichkeitsentwicklung können wir im bildungswissenschaftlichen Studium ermöglichen und gleichzeitig die QualitĂ€t der Lehramtsausbildung garantieren? Unser Anliegen ist es, sowohl fĂŒr uns als auch fĂŒr die Studierenden die VerĂ€nderungen zu durchleben, die notwendig sind, um Innovationen im Bildungssystem – in der Schule wie im Lehramtsstudium – mitzugestalten. Unser Ansatz liegt darin, Kooperation in Forschung und Lehre zu praktizieren, als Lehrende und als Wissenschaftler*innen. Der Aachener Kooperationsverbund befindet sich auf dem Weg. Realisiert sind bereits das Denkkollektiv, die Aachener BildungsgesprĂ€che und einige Kooperationen mit Schulen. Auf dem weiteren Weg wollen wir daran festhalten, gemeinsam VerĂ€nderung zu durchleben und Innovationen mitzugestalten. Based on the dissatisfaction of teachers and students in the educational sciences, we have set out to change teacher education in Aachen. Our central question is: How much freedom for personal development can we allow in the study of educational science and at the same time guarantee the quality of teacher training? It is our concern, both for us and for the students, to experience the changes that are necessary to help shape innovations in the educational system – in schools and in teacher training. Our approach as teachers and as scientists is to practice cooperation in research and teaching. The Aachen cooperation network is on the way. The “Denkkollektiv” [“thinking collective”], the “Aachener BildungsgesprĂ€che” [“Aachen Education Talks”] and a number of cooperations with schools have already been realized. On the way ahead, we want to continue to experience change and help shape innovations together

    A High-Throughput Method as a Diagnostic Tool for HIV Detection in Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Generated by Different Reprogramming Methods

    Get PDF
    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a unique opportunity for generation of patient-specific cells for use in translational purposes. We aimed to compare iPSCs generated by different reprogramming methods regarding their reprogramming efficiency, pluripotency capacity, and the possibility to use high-throughput PCR-based methods for detection of human pathogenic viruses. iPSCs from skin fibroblasts (FB), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were generated by using three different reprogramming systems including chromosomal integrating and nonintegrating methods. Reprogramming efficiencies were in accordance with the literature, indicating that the parental cell type and the reprogramming method play a major role for the reprogramming efficiencies (FB: STEMCCA: 1.30 +/- 0.18, Sendai virus: 1.37 +/- 0.01, and episomal plasmids: 0.04 +/- 0.02; PBMCs: Sendai virus: 0.002 +/- 0.001, episomal plasmids: 0) but result in the same characteristics of pluripotency. We found the highest reprogramming efficiencies for MSC with 3.32 +/- 1.2 by using episomal plasmids. Since GMP standard working procedures and screening units need virus contamination-free cell lines, we studied HIV-1 contamination in the generated iPSCs. We used the high-throughput cobas (R) 6800/8800 system, which is normally used for detection of HIV-1 in plasma of patients, and found that footprint-free reprogramming methods as episomal plasmids and Sendai virus are useful for the described virus detection method. This fast, cost-effective, robust, and reliable assay demonstrates the feasibility to use high-throughput PCR-based methods for detection of human pathogenic viruses in ps-iPSC lines that were generated with nongenome integrating reprogramming methods

    The 'Survivorship Passport' for childhood cancer survivors

    Get PDF
    Background: Currently, there are between 300,000 and 500,000 childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) in Europe. A significant proportion is at high risk, and at least 60% of them develop adverse health-related outcomes that can appear several years after treatment completion. Many survivors are unaware of their personal risk, and there seems to be a general lack of information among healthcare providers about pathophysiology and natural history of treatment-related complications. This can generate incorrect or delayed diagnosis and treatments. Method: The Survivorship Passport (SurPass) consists of electronic documents, which summarise the clinical history of the childhood or adolescent cancer survivor. It was developed by paediatric oncologists of the PanCare and SIOPE networks and IT experts of Cineca, together with parents, patients, and survivors' organisations within the European Union–funded European Network for Cancer research in Children and Adolescents. It consists of a template of a web-based, simply written document, translatable in all European languages, to be given to each CCS. The SurPass provides a summary of each survivor's clinical history, with detailed information about the original cancer and of treatments received, together with personalised follow-up and screening recommendations based on guidelines published by the International Guidelines Harmonization Group and PanCareSurFup. Results: The SurPass data schema contains a maximum of 168 variables and uses internationally approved nomenclature, except for radiotherapy fields, where a new classification was defined by radiotherapy experts. The survivor-specific screening recommendations are mainly based on treatment received and are automatically suggested, thanks to built-in algorithms. These may be adapted and further individualised by the treating physician in case of special disease and survivor circumstances. The SurPass was tested at the Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Italy, and received positive feedback. It is now being integrated at the institutional, regional and national level. Conclusions: The SurPass is potentially an essential tool for improved and more harmonised follow-up of CCS. It also has the potential to be a useful tool for empowering CCSs to be responsible for their own well-being and preventing adverse events whenever possible. With sufficient commitment on the European level, this solution should increase the capacity to respond more effectively to the needs of European CCS
    corecore