131 research outputs found

    Electromagnetic Waves in a Rotating Frame of Reference

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    We discuss the electromagnetic measurements of rotating observers and study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a uniformly rotating frame of reference. The phenomenon of helicity-rotation coupling is elucidated and some of the observational consequences of the coupling of the spin of a particle with the rotation of a gravitational source are briefly examined.Comment: LaTeX file, 2 PS figures, 18 pages, a few minor corrections, accepted for publication in Annalen der Physik, in pres

    A Report of an Experimental Carload of Fresh Vegetables Unloaded in Columbus, Ohio September 18, 1947

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    Drivers and uncertainties of future global marine primary production in marine ecosystem models

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    Past model studies have projected a global decrease in marine net primary production (NPP) over the 21st century, but these studies focused on the multi-model mean rather than on the large inter-model differences. Here, we analyze model-simulated changes in NPP for the 21st century under IPCC's high-emission scenario RCP8.5. We use a suite of nine coupled carbon–climate Earth system models with embedded marine ecosystem models and focus on the spread between the different models and the underlying reasons. Globally, NPP decreases in five out of the nine models over the course of the 21st century, while three show no significant trend and one even simulates an increase. The largest model spread occurs in the low latitudes (between 30° S and 30° N), with individual models simulating relative changes between −25 and +40 %. Of the seven models diagnosing a net decrease in NPP in the low latitudes, only three simulate this to be a consequence of the classical interpretation, i.e., a stronger nutrient limitation due to increased stratification leading to reduced phytoplankton growth. In the other four, warming-induced increases in phytoplankton growth outbalance the stronger nutrient limitation. However, temperature-driven increases in grazing and other loss processes cause a net decrease in phytoplankton biomass and reduce NPP despite higher growth rates. One model projects a strong increase in NPP in the low latitudes, caused by an intensification of the microbial loop, while NPP in the remaining model changes by less than 0.5 %. While models consistently project increases NPP in the Southern Ocean, the regional inter-model range is also very substantial. In most models, this increase in NPP is driven by temperature, but it is also modulated by changes in light, macronutrients and iron as well as grazing. Overall, current projections of future changes in global marine NPP are subject to large uncertainties and necessitate a dedicated and sustained effort to improve the models and the concepts and data that guide their developmen

    1976 Research Progress Reports; Fruit and Vegetable Processing and Food Technology

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    Evaluation of tomato cultivars for processing / W. A. Gould, R. Stillabower and D. Grindell -- Using tomato seeds / J. R. Geisman -- Evaluation of snap bean cultivars for processing / W. A. Gould and R. Stillabower -- Flame sterilization of canned green beans / J. R. Mount and W. A. Gould -- Flame sterilization of canned peas / J. R. Ice, J. R. Mount and W. A. Gould -- Flame sterilization of other canned products / John Mount and W. A. Gould -- Determination of factors affecting heat penetration in flame sterilized canned whole kernel sweet corn / R. Joseph and W. A. Gould -- Geotrichum candidum: the new FDA indicator of plant sanitation for the food processing industry / J. G. Fox and W. A. Gould -- Recycling spent pickling brines ; Uses for the outer green leaves of cabbage / J. R. Geisman -- The development of a fish spread by the utilization of freshwater drum from Lake Erie / J. D. Morgan and W. A. Gould -- Development of a sausage product from Lake Erie freshwater drum / S. Hauck and W. A. Gould -- Utilization of Lake Erie freshwater drum for fish sticks / W. Stone and W. A. Gould -- Acidification and thermal processing of tripolyphosphate treated freshwater drum fillets / T. F. Chin and W. A. Gould -- Effect of lipid and fatty acid composition on keeping quality / Andrew C. Peng -- Grape lipids / P. A. Higgins and A. C. Peng -- The effect of maturation on the lipid content of 'Concord' grapes / John A. Bauman and James F. Gallander -- Stability of ascorbic acid in fortified apple juice / M. I. Mahmoud and W. A. Gould -- Wine deacidification with mixed cultures of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; The effect of bacterial inoculum on malo-lactic fermentation in wines ; Concentrations of tartaric and malic acids of several wine varieties grown in Ohio / J. F. Gallander and J. F. Stetso

    Custom Integrated Circuits

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    Contains reports on six research projects.U.S. Air Force - Office of Scientific Research (Grant AFOSR-86-0164)U.S. Navy - Office of Naval Research (Contract N00014-80-C-0622)National Science Foundation (Grant ECS-83-10941

    Custom Integrated Circuits

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    Contains reports on seven research projects.U.S. Air Force - Office of Scientific Research (Contract F49620-84-C-0004)National Science Foundation (Grant ECS81-18160)Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Contract NOO14-80-C-0622)National Science Foundation (Grant ECS83-10941

    Custom Integrated Circuits

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    Contains reports on six research projects.U.S. Air Force - Office of Scientific Research (Contract F49620-84-C-0004)Analog Devices, Inc.Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Contract N00014-80-C-0622)National Science Foundation (Grant ECS83-10941

    Generation of Human CEACAM1 Transgenic Mice and Binding of Neisseria Opa Protein to Their Neutrophils

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    Human CEACAM1 is a cell-cell adhesion molecule with multiple functions including insulin clearance in the liver, vasculogenesis in endothelial cells, lumen formation in the mammary gland, and binding of certain human pathogens.Three genomic BAC clones containing the human CEACAM1 gene were microinjected into pronuclei of fertilized FVB mouse oocytes. The embryos were implanted in the oviducts of pseudopregnant females and allowed to develop to term. DNA from newborn mice was evaluated by PCR for the presence of the human CEACAM1 gene. Feces of the PCR positive offspring screened for expression of human CEACAM1. Using this assay, one out of five PCR positive lines was positive for human CEACAM1 expression and showed stable transmission to the F1 generation with the expected transmission frequency (0.5) for heterozygotes. Liver, lung, intestine, kidney, mammary gland, and prostate were strongly positive for the dual expression of both murine and human CEACAM1 and mimic that seen in human tissue. Peripheral blood and bone marrow granulocytes stained strongly for human CEACAM1 and bound Neisseria Opa proteins similar to that in human neutrophils.These transgenic animals may serve as a model for the binding of human pathogens to human CEACAM1

    Efficient Elimination of Cancer Cells by Deoxyglucose-ABT-263/737 Combination Therapy

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    As single agents, ABT-263 and ABT-737 (ABT), molecular antagonists of the Bcl-2 family, bind tightly to Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w, but not to Mcl-1, and induce apoptosis only in limited cell types. The compound 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), in contrast, partially blocks glycolysis, slowing cell growth but rarely causing cell death. Injected into an animal, 2DG accumulates predominantly in tumors but does not harm other tissues. However, when cells that were highly resistant to ABT were pre-treated with 2DG for 3 hours, ABT became a potent inducer of apoptosis, rapidly releasing cytochrome c from the mitochondria and activating caspases at submicromolar concentrations in a Bak/Bax-dependent manner. Bak is normally sequestered in complexes with Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL. 2DG primes cells by interfering with Bak-Mcl-1 association, making it easier for ABT to dissociate Bak from Bcl-xL, freeing Bak to induce apoptosis. A highly active glucose transporter and Bid, as an agent of the mitochondrial apoptotic signal amplification loop, are necessary for efficient apoptosis induction in this system. This combination treatment of cancer-bearing mice was very effective against tumor xenograft from hormone-independent highly metastasized chemo-resistant human prostate cancer cells, suggesting that the combination treatment may provide a safe and effective alternative to genotoxin-based cancer therapies

    Developing a predictive modelling capacity for a climate change-vulnerable blanket bog habitat: Assessing 1961-1990 baseline relationships

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    Aim: Understanding the spatial distribution of high priority habitats and developing predictive models using climate and environmental variables to replicate these distributions are desirable conservation goals. The aim of this study was to model and elucidate the contributions of climate and topography to the distribution of a priority blanket bog habitat in Ireland, and to examine how this might inform the development of a climate change predictive capacity for peat-lands in Ireland. Methods: Ten climatic and two topographic variables were recorded for grid cells with a spatial resolution of 1010 km, covering 87% of the mainland land surface of Ireland. Presence-absence data were matched to these variables and generalised linear models (GLMs) fitted to identify the main climatic and terrain predictor variables for occurrence of the habitat. Candidate predictor variables were screened for collinearity, and the accuracy of the final fitted GLM was evaluated using fourfold cross-validation based on the area under the curve (AUC) derived from a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plot. The GLM predicted habitat occurrence probability maps were mapped against the actual distributions using GIS techniques. Results: Despite the apparent parsimony of the initial GLM using only climatic variables, further testing indicated collinearity among temperature and precipitation variables for example. Subsequent elimination of the collinear variables and inclusion of elevation data produced an excellent performance based on the AUC scores of the final GLM. Mean annual temperature and total mean annual precipitation in combination with elevation range were the most powerful explanatory variable group among those explored for the presence of blanket bog habitat. Main conclusions: The results confirm that this habitat distribution in general can be modelled well using the non-collinear climatic and terrain variables tested at the grid resolution used. Mapping the GLM-predicted distribution to the observed distribution produced useful results in replicating the projected occurrence of the habitat distribution over an extensive area. The methods developed will usefully inform future climate change predictive modelling for Irelan
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