791 research outputs found

    Influence of V5/6-His Tag on the Properties of Gap Junction Channels Composed of Connexin43, Connexin40 or Connexin45

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    HeLa cells expressing wild-type connexin43, connexin40 or connexin45 and connexins fused with a V5/6-His tag to the carboxyl terminus (CT) domain (Cx43-tag, Cx40-tag, Cx45-tag) were used to study connexin expression and the electrical properties of gap junction channels. Immunoblots and immunolabeling indicated that tagged connexins are synthesized and targeted to gap junctions in a similar manner to their wild-type counterparts. Voltage-clamp experiments on cell pairs revealed that tagged connexins form functional channels. Comparison of multichannel and single-channel conductances indicates that tagging reduces the number of operational channels, implying interference with hemichannel trafficking, docking and/or channel opening. Tagging provoked connexin-specific effects on multichannel and single-channel properties. The Cx43-tag was most affected and the Cx45-tag, least. The modifications included (1) Vj-sensitive gating of Ij (Vj, gap junction voltage; Ij, gap junction current), (2) contribution and (3) kinetics of Ij deactivation and (4) single-channel conductance. The first three reflect alterations of fast Vj gating. Hence, they may be caused by structural and/or electrical changes on the CT that interact with domains of the amino terminus and cytoplasmic loop. The fourth reflects alterations of the ion-conducting pathway. Conceivably, mutations at sites remote from the channel pore, e.g., 6-His-tagged CT, affect protein conformation and thus modify channel properties indirectly. Hence, V5/6-His tagging of connexins is a useful tool for expression studies in vivo. However, it should not be ignored that it introduces connexin-dependent changes in both expression level and electrophysiological properties

    The effects of acute CRAM supplementation on reaction time and subjective measures of focus and alertness in healthy college students

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute and prolonged (4-weeks) ingestion of a supplement designed to improve reaction time and subjective measures of alertness, energy, fatigue, and focus compared to placebo.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Nineteen physically-active subjects (17 men and 2 women) were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed a supplement (21.1 ± 0.6 years; body mass: 80.6 ± 9.4 kg) or placebo (21.3 ± 0.8 years; body mass: 83.4 ± 18.5 kg). During the initial testing session (T1), subjects were provided 1.5 g of the supplement (CRAM; α-glycerophosphocholine, choline bitartrate, phosphatidylserine, vitamins B3, B6, and B12, folic acid, L-tyrosine, anhydrous caffeine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and naringin) or a placebo (PL), and rested quietly for 10-minutes before completing a questionnaire on subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus (PRE). Subjects then performed a 4-minute quickness and reaction test followed by a 10-min bout of exhaustive exercise. The questionnaire and reaction testing sequence was then repeated (POST). Subjects reported back to the lab (T2) following 4-weeks of supplementation and repeated the testing sequence.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Reaction time significantly declined (p = 0.050) between PRE and POST at T1 in subjects consuming PL, while subjects under CRAM supplementation were able to maintain (p = 0.114) their performance. Significant performance declines were seen in both groups from PRE to POST at T2. Elevations in fatigue were seen for CRAM at both T1 and T2 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.000, respectively), but only at T2 for PL (p = 0.029). Subjects in CRAM maintained focus between PRE and POST during both T1 and T2 trials (p = 0.152 and p = 0.082, respectively), whereas significant declines in focus were observed between PRE and POST in PL at both trials (p = 0.037 and p = 0.014, respectively). No difference in alertness was seen at T1 between PRE and POST for CRAM (p = 0.083), but a significant decline was recorded at T2 (p = 0.005). Alertness was significantly lower at POST at both T1 and T2 for PL (p = 0.040 and p = 0.33, respectively). No differences in any of these subjective measures were seen between the groups at any time point.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Results indicate that acute ingestion of CRAM can maintain reaction time, and subjective feelings of focus and alertness to both visual and auditory stimuli in healthy college students following exhaustive exercise. However, some habituation may occur following 4-weeks of supplementation.</p

    Measurement of the top quark forward-backward production asymmetry and the anomalous chromoelectric and chromomagnetic moments in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV

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    Abstract The parton-level top quark (t) forward-backward asymmetry and the anomalous chromoelectric (d̂ t) and chromomagnetic (Ό̂ t) moments have been measured using LHC pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, collected in the CMS detector in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb−1. The linearized variable AFB(1) is used to approximate the asymmetry. Candidate t t ÂŻ events decaying to a muon or electron and jets in final states with low and high Lorentz boosts are selected and reconstructed using a fit of the kinematic distributions of the decay products to those expected for t t ÂŻ final states. The values found for the parameters are AFB(1)=0.048−0.087+0.095(stat)−0.029+0.020(syst),Ό̂t=−0.024−0.009+0.013(stat)−0.011+0.016(syst), and a limit is placed on the magnitude of | d̂ t| &lt; 0.03 at 95% confidence level. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

    An embedding technique to determine ττ backgrounds in proton-proton collision data