138 research outputs found

    Introductory Chapter: Solid Waste

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    Coyote multi-objective optimization algorithm for optimal location and sizing of renewable distributed generators

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    Research on the integration of renewable distributed generators (RDGs) in radial distribution systems (RDS) is increased to satisfy the growing load demand, reducing power losses, enhancing voltage profile, and voltage stability index (VSI) of distribution network. This paper presents the application of a new algorithm called ‚Äėcoyote optimization algorithm (COA)‚Äô to obtain the optimal location and size of RDGs in RDS at different power factors. The objectives are minimization of power losses, enhancement of voltage stability index, and reduction total operation cost. A detailed performance analysis is implemented on IEEE 33 bus and IEEE 69 bus to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The results are found to be in a very good agreement

    Transformer Faults Classification Based on Convolution Neural Network

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    This paper studies the latest advances made in Deep Learning (DL) methods utilized for transformer inrush and fault currents classification. Inrush and fault currents at different operating conditions, initial flux and fault type are simulated. This paper presents a technique for the classification of power transformer faults which is based on a DL method called convolutional neural network (CNN) and compares it with traditional artificial neural network (ANN) and other techniques. The inrush and fault current signals of the transformer are simulated within MATLAB by using Fourier analyzers that provides the 2nd harmonic signal. The 2nd harmonic peak and variance statistic values of input signals of the three phases of transformer are used at different operating conditions. The resulted values are aggregated into a dataset to be used as an input for the CNN model, then training and testing the CNN model is performed. Consequently, it is obvious that the CNN algorithm achieves a better performance compared to other algorithms. This study helps with easy discrimination between normal signals and faulty signals and to determine the type of the fault to clear it easily

    Heavy Metal’s Environmental Impact

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    Heavy metals are inorganic elements with something like a density of more than 5 g/cm3. Essential and non-essential heavy metals were divided into two groups based on their toxicity. Heavy metals, unlike organic pollutants, are non-biodegradable and tend to accumulate in living things. Many heavy metal ions are hazardous or carcinogenic. The majority of heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, and zinc, are linked to pollution and hazardous concerns. There are more than 50 elements categorized as heavy metals, with 17 of them being extremely hazardous and easily accessible. Metal pollutants are often non-degradable and have no recognized homeostasis mechanism. Their mere presence in aquatic habitats is enough to have a direct or indirect impact on living systems. The anthropogenic pollution of heavy metals in ancient mining regions refers to areas where the concentration of one or more heavy metals exceeds normal values. Heavy metals disrupt cellular organelles and components in biological systems. Nanoscale zero-valent iron is a promising alternative for heavy metal cleanup. Heavy metal ions are poisonous, non-degradable, and tend to bioaccumulate and biomagnify. The purpose of this chapter is to display some heavy metals and the environmental impact of these minerals, which includes soil, plants, and humans

    PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ASSESSMENT OF ANTIPROLIFERATIVE AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF MORUS ALBA AND MORUS RUBRA FRUITS

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    Objective: Mulberry is a nontoxic commonly eaten plant, belongs to the Morus and used in folk medicine in the remedy of dysentery, antiphlogistic, diuretic, expectorant, and antidiabetic. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antiproliferative and radical scavenging activity of the total alcoholic and successive fractions thereof of Morus alba and Morus rubra fruits. In addition, the chemical composition of the bioactive fractions of each species was investigated.Methods: The antiproliferative potential of 8 extracts on 4 human cancer cell lines, hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), Caucasian breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), prostate (PC3), and colon carcinoma (HCT116) in addition to one normal cell line namely human normal immortalized skin fibroblast cells (BJ1) were carried out. Cell viability was determined using MTT assay. The potency was compared with the reference drug doxorubicin. These extracts were also assayed for 1,1-diphenyl-2-hydrazyl free radical scavenging activities. After saponification of the n-hexane fraction, unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). The chemical composition of the bioactive fractions was investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis.Results: All the extracts showed significant free radical scavenging activity dose-dependently. The n-hexane and dichloromethane (DCM) fractions of M. rubra exhibited potent cytotoxic activity on almost cancer cell lines. In the same pattern, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) of M. rubra has moderate cytotoxic activity against all cell lines except HepG2. DCM fraction of M. alba possessed both radical scavenging and high potential antiproliferated activities against HCT116 and MCF7 with inhibitory concentration of 43.9 and 32.3 √鬾g/ml, respectively, while it showed no cytotoxic effect on BJ1. GLC analysis showed the major hydrocarbons in M. alba and M. rubra were heptacosane and docosane, respectively. Sterols were similar in both species but with different ratios and cholesterol was the major one. Palmitic and margaric were the major saturated fatty acid while arachidonic was the major unsaturated fatty acid in both species. GC/MS analysis showed the main compound in DCM fraction of each Morus species was palmitic acid. Furthermore, 1,11-bis-(methoxycarbonyl-ethenyl)-10,2-dihydroxy-cycloeicosane and linolelaidic acid, methyl ester were the main compounds in the EtOAc fraction of each Morus species. Whereas, the main compounds in alcoholic extract of M. alba and M. rubra were methyl-14-methyl-pentadecanoate and 1,2-O-isopropylyidene-4-nonene-1,2,3-triol, respectively.Conclusions: The results observed remarkable biological activity of the successive fractions of M. rubra more than those of M. alba and confirmed its importance as a natural bioactive source. Morus species are good candidates to be promising as possible sources for future antitumor and antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical formulations. The strong activity partly explains the potential effects of Morus species for the treatment of cancer and degenerative diseases caused by free radicals

    Chromatographic Separation, Total Determination and Chemical Speciation of Mercury in Environmental Water Samples Using 4-(2-Thiazolylazo) Resorcinol-Based Polyurethane Foam Sorbent-Packed Column

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    A simple method has been developed for quantitative retention of traces of mercury(II) ions from aqueous media using polyurethane foams (PUFs) loaded with 4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol (TAR). The kinetics and thermodynamics of the sorption of mercury(II) ions onto PUFs were studied. The sorption of mercury(II) ions onto PUF follows a first-order rate equation with k¬†=¬†0.176¬†¬Ī¬†0.010¬†min‚ąí1. The negative values of őĒH and őĒS may be interpreted as the exothermic chemisorption process and indicative of a faster chemisorption onto the active sites of the sorbent. The sorption data followed Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D‚ÄďR) isotherm models. The D-R parameters ő≤, KDR and E were 0.329¬†mol2¬†kJ‚ąí2, 0.001¬†őľmol¬†g‚ąí1 and 1.23¬†¬Ī¬†0.07¬†kJ/mol for the TAR-loaded PUFs, respectively. An acceptable retention and recovery (99.6¬†¬Ī¬†1.1%) of mercury(II) ions in water at ‚ȧ10¬†ppb by the TAR-treated PUFs packed columns were achieved. A retention mechanism, involving absorption related to ‚Äúsolvent extraction‚ÄĚ and an ‚Äúadded component‚ÄĚ for surface adsorption, was suggested for the retention of mercury(II) ions by the used solid phase extractor. The performance of TAR-immobilized PUFs packed column in terms of the number (N), the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP), the breakthrough and critical capacities of mercury(II) ion uptake by the sorbent packed column were found to be 50.0¬†¬Ī¬†1.0, 1.01¬†¬Ī¬†0.02¬†mm, 8.75 and 13.75¬†mg/g, respectively, at 5¬†mL/min flow rate

    Global Retinoblastoma Presentation and Analysis by National Income Level.

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    Importance: Early diagnosis of retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular cancer, can save both a child's life and vision. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that many children across the world are diagnosed late. To our knowledge, the clinical presentation of retinoblastoma has never been assessed on a global scale. Objectives: To report the retinoblastoma stage at diagnosis in patients across the world during a single year, to investigate associations between clinical variables and national income level, and to investigate risk factors for advanced disease at diagnosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 278 retinoblastoma treatment centers were recruited from June 2017 through December 2018 to participate in a cross-sectional analysis of treatment-naive patients with retinoblastoma who were diagnosed in 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age at presentation, proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, and tumor stage and metastasis. Results: The cohort included 4351 new patients from 153 countries; the median age at diagnosis was 30.5 (interquartile range, 18.3-45.9) months, and 1976 patients (45.4%) were female. Most patients (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ3685 [84.7%]) were from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Globally, the most common indication for referral was leukocoria (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2638 [62.8%]), followed by strabismus (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ429 [10.2%]) and proptosis (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ309 [7.4%]). Patients from high-income countries (HICs) were diagnosed at a median age of 14.1 months, with 656 of 666 (98.5%) patients having intraocular retinoblastoma and 2 (0.3%) having metastasis. Patients from low-income countries were diagnosed at a median age of 30.5 months, with 256 of 521 (49.1%) having extraocular retinoblastoma and 94 of 498 (18.9%) having metastasis. Lower national income level was associated with older presentation age, higher proportion of locally advanced disease and distant metastasis, and smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma. Advanced disease at diagnosis was more common in LMICs even after adjusting for age (odds ratio for low-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 17.92 [95% CI, 12.94-24.80], and for lower-middle-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 5.74 [95% CI, 4.30-7.68]). Conclusions and Relevance: This study is estimated to have included more than half of all new retinoblastoma cases worldwide in 2017. Children from LMICs, where the main global retinoblastoma burden lies, presented at an older age with more advanced disease and demonstrated a smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, likely because many do not reach a childbearing age. Given that retinoblastoma is curable, these data are concerning and mandate intervention at national and international levels. Further studies are needed to investigate factors, other than age at presentation, that may be associated with advanced disease in LMICs

    Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)

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    In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure fl ux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defi ned as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (inmost higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium ) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the fi eld understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation it is imperative to delete or knock down more than one autophagy-related gene. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways so not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field

    Combined searches for the production of supersymmetric top quark partners in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV