15 research outputs found

    Utilization Rate of Outsourcing in Selected Municipalities

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    Cílem bakalářské práce je míra využití outsourcingu v obcích Olomouckého kraje. Zvolený problém jsem vyřešila pomocí metodiky dotazníkového šetření a analýzy získaných dat. Podařilo se získat dostatečné množství vzorků a tím potvrdit, že obce outsourcing využívají. Hlavním přínosem této práce je zjištění, že obce outsourcing využívají ve velké míře. Většina obcí, které odpověděly na dotazník, své činnosti zajišťují externím dodavatelem. Z práce je taky zřejmé, že nejčastější outsourcované činnosti jsou informačních technologie, komunální odpad a právní služby. Obce k zavedení outsourcingu vedou různé důvody, nejčastějším důvodem je přístup k technologiím a lidským zdrojům externím dodavatele. U každého smluvního vztahu mohou vzniknout rizika. Dalším zjištěním je, že nejčastějším rizikem je kvalita poskytované služby a kvalifikace pracovníků dodavatelské firmy.The aim of this thesis is ulitization rate of outsourcing in the selected municipalities of the Olomouc region. The chosen problem I solved using the methodology of the questionnaire survey and the analysis of the obtained data. It was managed to get a sufficient number of samples and thus to confirm that the municipalities use outsourcing. The main contribution of this thesis is findig out that the level of outsourcing use in selected municipalities is very often. The major part of municipalities, which took part in questionnaire survey, make use of external suppliers for their activities. According to questionnaire survey results the most common outsourced activities are information technology, municipal waste and legal services. The municipalities use outsourcing because of a variety of reasons, the most common reason is access to the technology and human resources of external contractor. For each contractual relationship risks can arise. Another finding is that the most common risk is the quality of the provided services and the qualifications of the contractor's staff.153 - Katedra veřejné ekonomikyvýborn

    Oxidative stress in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of the experimental groups.

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    <p>(A) TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) used as an index of lipid peroxidation and (B) FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma) as an indicator of a total antioxidant status were measured in all of the experimental groups. Different superscript letters (a-e) indicate significant differences among the groups (<i>P</i><0.05). CTR = control; T2D = type 2 diabetes; INS = NPH insulin; GLC = glibenclamide; Leu = leucine; Zn = zinc; Cr = chromium.</p

    Cell analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the experimental groups.

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    <p><sup>1</sup>RBC = red blood cells; HPF = high power field; Lym = lymphocyte; Epith = epithelial; Macro = macrophage; Neut = neutrophil; # = number of cell</p><p><sup>2</sup>CTR = control; T2D = type 2 diabetes; INS = NPH insulin; GLC = glibenclamide; Leu = leucine; Zn = zinc; Cr = chromium.</p><p><sup>a–c</sup>Significant differences (<i>P</i><0.05) among treatments are indicated by different letters.</p><p>Data are least squares means and standard error of the mean.</p

    Histopathological findings in the tracheas of rats in all of the experimental groups.

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    <p>A. Control (CTR): normal architecture of trachea Bar: 125 micrometres; B. Diabetic group (T2D): sub-mucosal gland hyperplasia. Although most of the glands are serous glands (black arrows), one mucus secretory unit is observable (white arrow) Bar: 50 micrometres; C. Insulin-treated group (INS): the trachea is approximately normal. Bar: 125 micrometres; D. Glibenclamide-treated group (GLC): inflammatory cells are obvious in the lamina propria and submucosa (white arrows). Bar: 12.5 micrometres; E. Leucine-treated group (Leu): inflammatory mononuclear cells are present in the submucosa (white arrows). Hypertrophic and hyperplastic glands are present (black arrow) Bar: 50 micrometres; F. Zinc-treated group (Zn): severe inflammation in the lamina propria and submucosa. Bar: 12.5 micrometres; G. Chromium-treated group (Cr): edema (black arrows) and inflammation (white arrows) in the lamina propria and submucosa. Bar: 50 micrometres; H. Zinc and Cr-treated group (Zn-Cr): edema (black arrows) and slight inflammation (white arrows) in the lamina propria and submucosa. Bar: 12.5 micrometres; I. Leu plus Zn-treated group (Leu-Zn): edema (black arrows) and slight inflammation (white arrows) in the lamina propria and submucosa. Bar: 12.5 micrometres; J. Leu plus Cr-treated group (Leu-Cr): inflammation in the submucosa (arrows) Bar: 50 micrometres; K. Zinc plus Cr-treated group (Zn-Cr): the presence of different types of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria and submucosa (arrows) Bar: 12.5 micrometre; L. Leucine plus zinc plus chromium-treated group (Leu-Zn-Cr): slight edema in the submucosa (arrows) Bar: 50 micrometres.</p

    Antioxidant enzymes activities in the lungs of the experimental groups.

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    <p>The lung catalase (A), glutathione peroxidase (B), myeloperoxidase (C) and superoxide dismutase (D) activities were measured in all of the experimental groups. Different superscript letters (a-f) indicate significant differences among groups (<i>P</i><0.05). CTR = control; T2D = type 2 diabetes; INS = NPH insulin; GLC = glibenclamide; Leu = leucine; Zn = zinc; Cr = chromium.</p

    Blood insulin concentrations in the experimental groups.

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    <p>Different superscript letters (a-d) indicate significant differences among the groups (<i>P</i><0.05). CTR = control; T2D = type 2 diabetes; INS = NPH insulin; GLC = glibenclamide; Leu = leucine; Zn = zinc; Cr = chromium.</p

    Histopathological findings in the lungs of rat in all of the experimental groups.

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    <p>Lung parenchyma. A. Control (CTR): lung normal parenchyma. Bar: 75 micrometres; B. Diabetic group (T2D): hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the smooth muscles in a secondary bronchiole wall (arrows). Bar: 20 micrometres; C. Diabetic group: severe inflammation around a blood vessel (white arrows) and alveolar epithelialization (black arrows). Bar: 75 micrometres. D. Insulin-treated group: slight edema (white arrows) and scattered inflammatory cells (black arrows) around a blood vessel. The lesions are less pronounced than those of the diabetic group. The alveolar walls are normal with less epithelialization. Bar: 75 micrometres. E. Leucine-treated group (Leu): increased numbers of intra-alveolar macrophage compared with the control (arrows). Bar: 75 micrometres. F. Glibenclamide-treated group (GLC): inflammatory cell infiltration around a secondary bronchiole (white arrow), edema and fibrin accumulation and fibrosis around a vessel (black arrow). Bar: 75 micrometres. G. Leu-treated group: severe inflammation around a secondary bronchiole (white arrow) and epithelialization in the alveolar walls. Bar: 75 micrometres. H. Zinc-treated group (Zn): Peribronchial inflammation (black arrows) and perivascular edema (white arrow). Bar: 75 micrometres. I. Zn-treated group: hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the smooth muscle in a secondary bronchiole wall (arrows) Bar: 20 micrometres. J. Cr-treated group: perivascular edema, fibrin accumulation and fibrosis (arrows). Bar: 75 micrometres. K. Chromium-treated group (Cr): alveolar epithelialization (arrows). Bar: 75 micrometre L. Zn plus Cr-treated group (Zn-Cr): perivascular edema and fibrin accumulation (white arrows) and scattered infiltration of inflammatory cells (black arrows). Bar: 75 micrometres. M. Leu plus Zn-treated group (Leu-Zn): perivascular edema and fibrin and collagen accumulation (arrows). Bar: 20 micrometres. N. Leu plus Cr-treated group (Leu-Cr): severe perivascular inflammation. Bar: 20 micrometres. O. Leu, Zn plus Cr-treated group (Leu-Zn-Cr): perivascular edema (white arrows) and slight infiltration of inflammatory cells (black arrows). The alveolar epithelialization is somewhat less than in the diabetic group. Bar: 75 micrometres.</p

    Protein leakage in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of the experimental groups.

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    <p>The total amounts of protein were measured in the BAL fluid in all of the experimental groups. Different superscript letters (a-d) indicate significant differences among groups (<i>P</i><0.05). CTR = control; T2D = type 2 diabetes; INS = NPH insulin; GLC = glibenclamide; Leu = leucine; Zn = zinc; Cr = chromium.</p

    Haematological parameters of the experimental groups.

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    <p><sup>1</sup>PCV = packed cell volume; TP = total protein; FBG = fibrinogen; RBC = red blood cells; Hb = hemoglobin; WBC = white blood cells.</p><p><sup>2</sup>CTR = control; T2D = type 2 diabetes; INS = NPH insulin; GLC = glibenclamide; Leu = leucine; Zn = zinc; Cr = chromium.</p><p><sup>a–e</sup>Significant differences (<i>P</i><0.05) among treatments are indicated by different letters.</p><p>Data are least squares means and standard error of the mean.</p

    Blood antioxidant enzyme activities in the experimental groups.

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    <p>Blood catalase (A), glutathione peroxidase (B), myeloperoxidase (C) and superoxide dismutase (D) activities was measured in all of the experimental groups. Different superscript letters (a-f) indicate significant differences among the groups (<i>P</i><0.05). CTR = control; T2D = type 2 diabetes; INS = NPH insulin; GLC = glibenclamide; Leu = leucine; Zn = zinc; Cr = chromium.</p
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