5,320 research outputs found

    From knowledge dependence to knowledge creation: Industrial growth and the technological advance of the Japanese electronics industry

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    The thrust of the argument put forward in this paper is that the postwar technological advance of the Japanese electronics industry was in essence a product not a primary cause of industrial growth. We demonstrate that the industry's surge forward resulted from the interaction of a unique combination of political, economic and cultural forces. Business leaders took full advantage by investing on a massive scale in physical, organizational, human and technological resources. It was success in the marketplace and strong cash flows that allowed Japanese firms to import technology on a large scale, invest in scientists and engineers, and progressively develop world class technological capabilities. In establishing themselves as global players, Japanese electronics firms moved over the years from a position of knowledge dependence to one of knowledge creation. We explore how this transformation was achieved and how they learned to control and exploit knowledge creating systems and processes. In particular, we establish the multi-faceted context and complex set of relationships that have conditioned strategic decision making and the creation of technological capabilities

    Relative Abundance, Seasonal Distribution and Taxonomy of Sphingidae of Northeast Arkansas

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    A total of 38 species of sphingids, with keys and descriptions, are reported from Northeast Arkansas. Graphs and tables are presented to show relative abundance and seasonal distribution. Drawings of genitalia, fore tibiae, and forewings, as well as photographs of species in the key are included

    Andrew Carnegie, World Making and the Logic of Contemporary Entrepreneurial Philanthropy

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    This paper focuses on the relationship between the business and philanthropic endeavours of world-making entrepreneurs; asking why, how and to what ends these individuals seek to extend their reach in society beyond business. We present an original model of entrepreneurial philanthropy which demonstrates how investment in philanthropic projects can yield positive returns in cultural, social and symbolic capital, which in turn may lead to growth in economic capital. The interpretive power of the model is demonstrated through analysis of the career of Andrew Carnegie, whose story, far from reducing to one of earning a fortune then giving it away, is revealed as more complex and more unified. His philanthropy raised his stock within the field of power, extending his influence and helping convert surplus funds into social networks, high social standing and intellectual currency, enabling him to engage in world making on a grand scale

    Preferences Between Continuous Streams of Events

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    Cost-benefit and health policy studies often model a consequence occurring over time as a continuous stream of events. Such a consequence is measured by the rates at which events occur or by the states that occur, and the value of the consequence is measured by an integral. This paper presents a foundation for such models. It defines conditions on preferences between consequences that are equivalent to an integral value function having a discounting function and an intertemporal equity function.discounting; equity; continuous time; value function; evaluation

    Integral-Value Models for Outcomes over Continuous Time

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    Models of preferences between outcomes over continuous time are important for individual, corporate, and social decision making, e.g., medical treatment, infrastructure development, and environmental regulation. This paper presents a foundation for such models. It shows that conditions on preferences between real- or vector-valued outcomes over continuous time are satisfied if and only if the preferences are represented by a value function having an integral form.continuous time; discounting; ordinal utility scale; value function; integral

    Cardinal Scales for Public Health Evaluation

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    Policy studies often evaluate health for a population by summing the individuals’ health as measured by a scale that is ordinal or that depends on risk attitudes. We develop a method using a different type of preferences, called preference intensity or cardinal preferences, to construct scales that measure changes in health. The method is based on a social welfare model that relates preferences between changes in an individual’s health to preferences between changes in health for a population.public health evaluation; social welfare; preference intensity; health state

    A rounded picture is what we need : rhetorical strategies, arguments, and the negotiation of change in a UK hospital trust

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    This article is concerned with the introduction of the agenda of New Public Management (NPM) within the board of a UK Hospital Trust: West London Hospital (WLH). We discuss the literature on New Public Management, including its limitations for analysing the organizational reality of implementing NPM. But we will also be drawing on discourse theory and the literature on rhetoric. The main argument in this article is that in order to understand the reality of the NPM paradigm, we need to study the rhetorical strategies of protagonists involved in the negotiation of the NPM agenda. Rhetorical strategies are means of making general viewpoints more convincing, for example, by comparing 'our' organization with similar organizations. Rhetorical strategies show patterns, which reappear in conversations and arguments made by protagonists. Specifically, we identified three rhetorical strategies justifying why and what kind of a more 'rounded picture' was required: widening the argument to include national productivity comparisons with other hospitals; widening the argument away from a narrow focus on finance toward a strategic and political perspective; and, lastly, widening the argument to look at innovation in the whole clinical process

    Discounting Models for Outcomes over Continuous Time

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    Events that occur over a period of time can be described either as sequences of outcomes at discrete times or as functions of outcomes in an interval of time. This paper presents discounting models for events of the latter type. Conditions on preferences are shown to be satisfied if and only if the preferences are represented by a function that is an integral of a discounting function times a scale defined on outcomes at instants of time.continuous time; integral discounting; integral value or utility function

    The Limited Impact of Financial Sector Reforms in Zimbabwe

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    The impact on Southern Africa of the financial crises in Asia and Russia

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    The countries of southern Africa have not suffered seriously from "financial contagion which is the short-term and sometimes devastating impact of financial crises in other countries. The first stage of financial contagion occurs through the markets for foreign exchange, shares and bonds. The second stage which can be even more devastating, occurs if trouble in financial markets causes a crisis in the country's banking system, as happened in several Asian countries. South Africa's economy is potentially the most vulnerable n Southern Africa to financial contagion, because it has highly developed financial markets which are open to inflows and outflows of foreign capital. However, the economic cost of financial contagion has been limited in South Africa because the country's banking system is sound. Zimbabwe has been similarly protected from the worst effects of financial contagion. Financial markets in the other countries of Southern Africa are very underdeveloped, which limits the first stage of financial contagion; this is fortunate, because some of them have unsound banking systems. All of these countries are actively trying to develop their financial sectors, however, so that their relative immunity to financial contagion may be reduced in the future. This will strengthen the case for maintaining macroeconomic balance, realistic exchange rates, and absolutely sound banking systems
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