39 research outputs found

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Measurement of the calorimetric energy scale in MINOS

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    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. A neutrino beam is created at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois and fired down through the Earth. Measurements of the energy spectra and composition of the neutrino beam are made both at the source using the Near detector and 735 km away at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota using the Far detector. By comparing the spectrum and flavour composition of the neutrino beam between the two detectors neutrino oscillations can be observed. Such a comparison depends on the accuracy of the relative calorimetric energy scale. This thesis details a precise measurement of the calorimetric energy scale of the MINOS Far detector and Calibration detector using stopping muons with a new "track window" technique. These measurements are used to perform the relative calibration between the two detectors. This calibration has been accomplished to 1.7% in data and to significantly better than 2% in the Monte Carlo simulation, thus achieving the MINOS relative calibration target of 2%. A number of cross-checks have been performed to ensure the robustness of the calorimetric energy scale measurements. At the Calibration detector the test-beam energy between run periods is found to be consistent with the detector response to better than 2% after the relative calibration is applied. The muon energy loss in the MINOS detectors determined from Bethe-Bloch predictions, data and Monte Carlo are compared and understood. To estimate the systematic error on the measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters caused by a relative miscalibration a study is performed. A 2% relative miscalibration is shown to cause a 0.6% bias in the values of Δm2 and sin2(2θ).</p

    Activated memory T helper cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with atopic asthma:relation to asthma symptoms, lung function, and bronchial responsiveness

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    BACKGROUND: Bronchial mucosal inflammation and epithelial damage are characteristic features of asthma. Activation of T helper lymphocytes may contribute to this process by mechanisms including the release of cytokines promoting eosinophil infiltration and activation. METHODS: Bronchial washings and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were obtained from 29 atopic asthmatic patients (19 with current symptoms and 10 symptom free) and 13 normal volunteers. Flow cytometry was used to assess T cell phenotype and activation status in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood, and differential cell counts were made on bronchial washings and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Findings were related to severity of disease as reflected by symptom scores, baseline lung function, and airway responsiveness. RESULTS: CD4 T lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood from asthmatic patients were activated by comparison with controls (CD4 CD25, median 16.8% v 8.7% for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and 15.3% v 8.7% in blood). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid CD4 T cells from both asthmatic patients and controls were of memory phenotype (95.8% and 96.8% CD45RO and 1.7% and 0.4% CD45RA respectively), whereas both CD45RO and CD45RA T cells were present in blood. Patients with asthma and current symptoms showed increased bronchoalveolar T cell activation compared with patients without symptoms (CD4 CD25 18.7% v 12.3%). Within the asthmatic group there was a significant association between CD4 CD25 lymphocytes and asthma symptom scores (rs = 0.75), airway methacholine responsiveness (log PC20, rs = -0.43) and baseline FEV1 (rs = -0.39). A correlation was also found between CD4 CD25 lymphocytes and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (rs = 0.48). Eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were increased in asthmatic patients compared with controls and the percentage of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid correlated with asthma symptom score. A relation was found between percentage of epithelial cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and FEV1 and methacholine PC20. CONCLUSION: These results support the hypothesis that selective activation of memory CD4 T cells contributes to eosinophil accumulation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and symptoms in asthma
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