532 research outputs found

    Abusive Head Trauma and Mortality-An Analysis From an International Comparative Effectiveness Study of Children With Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Objectives: Small series have suggested that outcomes after abusive head trauma are less favorable than after other injury mechanisms. We sought to determine the impact of abusive head trauma on mortality and identify factors that differentiate children with abusive head trauma from those with traumatic brain injury from other mechanisms. Design: First 200 subjects from the Approaches and Decisions in Acute Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Trial—a comparative effectiveness study using an observational, cohort study design. Setting: PICUs in tertiary children’s hospitals in United States and abroad. Patients: Consecutive children (age < 18 yr) with severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8; intracranial pressure monitoring). Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Demographics, injury-related scores, prehospital, and resuscitation events were analyzed. Children were dichotomized based on likelihood of abusive head trauma. A total of 190 children were included (n = 35 with abusive head trauma). Abusive head trauma subjects were younger (1.87 ± 0.32 vs 9.23 ± 0.39 yr; p < 0.001) and a greater proportion were female (54.3% vs 34.8%; p = 0.032). Abusive head trauma were more likely to 1) be transported from home (60.0% vs 33.5%; p < 0.001), 2) have apnea (34.3% vs 12.3%; p = 0.002), and 3) have seizures (28.6% vs 7.7%; p < 0.001) during prehospital care. Abusive head trauma had a higher prevalence of seizures during resuscitation (31.4 vs 9.7%; p = 0.002). After adjusting for covariates, there was no difference in mortality (abusive head trauma, 25.7% vs nonabusive head trauma, 18.7%; hazard ratio, 1.758; p = 0.60). A similar proportion died due to refractory intracranial hypertension in each group (abusive head trauma, 66.7% vs nonabusive head trauma, 69.0%). Conclusions: In this large, multicenter series, children with abusive head trauma had differences in prehospital and in-hospital secondary injuries which could have therapeutic implications. Unlike other traumatic brain injury populations in children, female predominance was seen in abusive head trauma in our cohort. Similar mortality rates and refractory intracranial pressure deaths suggest that children with severe abusive head trauma may benefit from therapies including invasive monitoring and adherence to evidence-based guidelines

    Neo-Atlantis: The Netherlands under a 5-m sea level rise

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    What could happen to the Netherlands if, in 2030, the sea level starts to rise and eventually, after 100 years, a sea level of 5 m above current level would be reached? This question is addressed by studying literature, by interviewing experts in widely differing fields, and by holding an expert workshop on this question. Although most experts believe that geomorphology and current engineering skills would enable the country to largely maintain its territorial integrity, there are reasons to assume that this is not likely to happen. Social processes that precede important political decisions - such as the growth of the belief in the reality of sea level rise and the framing of such decisions in a proper political context (policy window) - evolve slowly. A flood disaster would speed up the decision-making process. The shared opinion of the experts surveyed is that eventually part of the Netherlands would be abandoned. © 2008 The Author(s)

    Deficiency of FLCN in Mouse Kidney Led to Development of Polycystic Kidneys and Renal Neoplasia

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    The Birt–Hogg–Dubé (BHD) disease is a genetic cancer syndrome. The responsible gene, BHD, has been identified by positional cloning and thought to be a novel tumor suppressor gene. BHD mutations cause many types of diseases including renal cell carcinomas, fibrofolliculomas, spontaneous pneumothorax, lung cysts, and colonic polyps/cancers. By combining Gateway Technology with the Ksp-Cre gene knockout system, we have developed a kidney-specific BHD knockout mouse model. BHDflox/flox/Ksp-Cre mice developed enlarged kidneys characterized by polycystic kidneys, hyperplasia, and cystic renal cell carcinoma. The affected BHDflox/flox/Ksp-Cre mice died of renal failure at approximate three weeks of age, having blood urea nitrogen levels over tenfold higher than those of BHD flox/+/Ksp-Cre and wild-type littermate controls. We further demonstrated that these phenotypes were caused by inactivation of BHD and subsequent activation of the mTOR pathway. Application of rapamycin, which inhibits mTOR activity, to the affected mice led to extended survival and inhibited further progression of cystogenesis. These results provide a correlation of kidney-targeted gene inactivation with renal carcinoma, and they suggest that the BHD product FLCN, functioning as a cyst and tumor suppressor, like other hamartoma syndrome–related proteins such as PTEN, LKB1, and TSC1/2, is a component of the mTOR pathway, constituting a novel FLCN-mTOR signaling branch that regulates cell growth/proliferation

    Responsible management: Engaging moral reflexive practice through threshold concepts

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    YesIn this conceptual paper we argue that, to date, principles of responsible management have not impacted practice as anticipated because of a disconnect between knowledge and practice. This disconnect means that an awareness of ethical concerns, by itself, does not help students take personal responsibility for their actions. We suggest that an abstract knowledge of principles has to be supplemented by an engaged understanding of the responsibility of managers and leaders to actively challenge irresponsible practices. We argue that a form of moral reflexive practice drawing on an understanding of threshold concepts is central to responsible management, and provides a gateway to transformative learning. Our conceptual argument leads to implications for management and professional education

    Biological Characterisation of Haliclona (?gellius) sp.: Sponge and Associated Microorganisms

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    We have characterised the northern Pacific undescribed sponge Haliclona (?gellius) sp. based on rDNA of the sponge and its associated microorganisms. The sponge is closely related to Amphimedon queenslandica from the Great Barrier Reef as the near-complete 18S rDNA sequences of both sponges were identical. The microbial fingerprint of three specimens harvested at different times and of a transplanted specimen was compared to identify stably associated microorganisms. Most bacterial phyla were detected in each sample, but only a few bacterial species were determined to be stably associated with the sponge. A sponge-specific β- and γ-Proteobacterium were abundant clones and both of them were present in three of the four specimens analysed. In addition, a Planctomycete and a Crenarchaea were detected in all sponge individuals. Both were closely related to operational taxonomic units that have been found in other sponges, but not exclusively in sponges. Interestingly, also a number of clones that are closely related to intracellular symbionts from insects and amoeba were detected

    Gibberellin Biosynthetic Inhibitors Make Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum Cells Swell and Rupture to Death

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    Malaria remains as one of the most devastating infectious disease, and continues to exact an enormous toll in medical cost and days of labor lost especially in the tropics. Effective malaria control and eventual eradication remain a huge challenge, with efficacious antimalarials as important intervention/management tool. Clearly new alternative drugs that are more affordable and with fewer side effects are desirable. After preliminary in vitro assays with plant growth regulators and inhibitors, here, we focus on biosynthetic inhibitors of gibberellin, a plant hormone with many important roles in plant growth, and show their inhibitory effect on the growth of both apicomplexa, Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Treatment of P. falciparum cultures with the gibberellin biosynthetic inhibitors resulted in marked morphological changes that can be reversed to a certain degree under hyperosmotic environment. These unique observations suggest that changes in the parasite membrane permeability may explain the pleiotropic effects observed within the intracellular parasites

    A defect in myoblast fusion underlies Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome

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    Multinucleate cellular syncytial formation is a hallmark of skeletal muscle differentiation. Myomaker, encoded by Mymk (Tmem8c), is a well-conserved plasma membrane protein required for myoblast fusion to form multinucleated myotubes in mouse, chick, and zebrafish. Here, we report that autosomal recessive mutations in MYMK (OMIM 615345) cause Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome in humans (CFZS; OMIM 254940) by reducing but not eliminating MYMK function. We characterize MYMK-CFZS as a congenital myopathy with marked facial weakness and additional clinical and pathologic features that distinguish it from other congenital neuromuscular syndromes. We show that a heterologous cell fusion assay in vitro and allelic complementation experiments in mymk knockdown and mymk insT/insT zebrafish in vivo can differentiate between MYMK wild type, hypomorphic and null alleles. Collectively, these data establish that MYMK activity is necessary for normal muscle development and maintenance in humans, and expand the spectrum of congenital myopathies to include cell-cell fusion deficits

    HER2 induced EMT and tumorigenicity in breast epithelial progenitor cells is inhibited by coexpression of EGFR.

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    To access publisher's full text version of this article, please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links field or click on the hyperlink at the top of the page marked Files. This article is open access.The members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase family are important players in breast morphogenesis and cancer. EGFR2/HER2 and EGFR expression have a prognostic value in certain subtypes of breast cancer such as HER2-amplified, basal-like and luminal type B. Many clinically approved small molecular inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies have been designed to target HER2, EGFR or both. There is, however, still limited knowledge on how the two receptors are expressed in normal breast epithelium, what effects they have on cellular differentiation and how they participate in neoplastic transformation. D492 is a breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties that can undergo epithelial to mesenchyme transition (EMT), generate luminal- and myoepithelial cells and form complex branching structures in three-dimensional (3D) culture. Here, we show that overexpression of HER2 in D492 (D492(HER2)) resulted in EMT, loss of contact growth inhibition and increased oncogenic potential in vivo. HER2 overexpression, furthermore, inhibited endogenous EGFR expression. Re-introducing EGFR in D492(HER2) (D492(HER2/EGFR)) partially reversed the mesenchymal state of the cells, as an epithelial phenotype reappeared both in 3D cultures and in vivo. The D492(HER2/EGFR) xenografts grow slower than the D492(HER2) tumors, while overexpression of EGFR alone (D492(EGFR)) was not oncogenic in vivo. Consistent with the EGFR-mediated epithelial phenotype, overexpression of EGFR drove the cells toward a myoepithelial phenotype in 3D culture. The effect of two clinically approved anti-HER2 and EGFR therapies, trastuzumab and cetuximab, was tested alone and in combination on D492(HER2) xenografts. While trastuzumab had a growth inhibitory effect compared with untreated control, the effect of cetuximab was limited. When administered in combination, the growth inhibitory effect of trastuzumab was less pronounced. Collectively, our data indicate that in HER2-overexpressing D492 cells, EGFR can behave as a tumor suppressor, by pushing the cells towards epithelial differentiation.Landspitali University Hospital Science Fund, University of Iceland Research Fund, Science and Technology Policy Council Research Fund and Grant of Excellence, ‘Göngum saman’, a supporting group for breast cancer research in Iceland

    Carbohydrate, phenolic and antioxidant level in relation to chlorophyll a content in oilseed winter rape (Brassica napus L.) inoculated with Leptosphaeria maculans

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    Syftet med föreliggande studien var att undersöka om sjuksköterskors egna rökvanor påverkar attityden till tobakspreventivt arbete på sjukhuset, både till tobakspreventivt arbete med patienterna och attityden till rökfritt sjukhus. Studien är empirisk och utfördes genom kvalitativa intervjuer med sex sjuksköterskor på en vårdavdelning på ett sjukhus i södra Sverige. Data från intervjuerna analyserades och resulterade i sju olika teman: Preventiva rollen, Kunskap om prevention, Vem skall leda det preventiva arbetet, Rökkontroll, Utbildningsnivå och rökning, Sjuksköterskan, en förebild?, Vem ska hjälpa patienten vid rökstopp på sjukhuset?, Är det någon skillnad mellan icke rökande och rökande vad avser rökpreventionen?. Den preventiva rollen hamnade i fokus och skillnader fanns mellan rökande och icke rökande sjuksköterskor både vad gäller preventivt omvårdnasarbete och kontrollThe aim of the present study is to investigate whether nurses smoking habits influence their attitude to tobacco prevention in hospitals, both in their work with patients and regarding their attitude to hospital smoking bans. The following question was posed: is there a difference between smoking and non-smoking nurses in patient-care activities regarding smoking prevention and control? The study is qualitative, based on qualitative interviews with six nurses at a ward of a hospital in Sweden. Interview data were analyzed and eight themes emerged: the role in prevention work knowledge of prevention who is to lead prevention work smoking control smoking and education levels the nurse as a role model who is to help the patient give up smoking possible differences between nonsmoking and smoking nurses regarding smoking prevention. The role in prevention work turned out to be central. Smoking nurses had greater difficulties in connection with preventive work and control, due to their personal experience of how hard it can be to give up smoking habits
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