39,725 research outputs found

    Evaluating Distributed Time-Varying Generation Through a Multiobjective Index

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    In the last decade, distributed generation, with its various technologies, has increased its presence in the energy mix presenting distribution networks with challenges in terms of evaluating the technical impacts that require a wide range of network operational effects to be qualified and quantified. The inherent time-varying behavior of demand and distributed generation (particularly when renewable sources are used), need to be taken into account since considering critical scenarios of loading and generation may mask the impacts. One means of dealing with such complexity is through the use of indices that indicate the benefit or otherwise of connections at a given location and for a given horizon. This paper presents a multiobjective performance index for distribution networks with time-varying distributed generation which consider a number of technical issues. The approach has been applied to a medium voltage distribution network considering hourly demand and wind speeds. Results show that this proposal has a better response to the natural behavior of loads and generation than solely considering a single operation scenario

    Evaluating distributed generation impacts with a multiobjective index

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    Evaluating the technical impacts associated with connecting distributed generation to distribution networks is a complex activity requiring a wide range of network operational and security effects to be qualified and quantified. One means of dealing with such complexity is through the use of indices that indicate the benefit or otherwise of connections at a given location and which could be used to shape the nature of the contract between the utility and distributed generator. This paper presents a multiobjective performance index for distribution networks with distributed generation which considers a wide range of technical issues. Distributed generation is extensively located and sized within the IEEE-34 test feeder, wherein the multiobjective performance index is computed for each configuration. The results are presented and discussed

    Flucytosine and cryptococcosis: time to urgently address the worldwide accessibility of a 50-year-old antifungal.

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    Current, widely accepted guidelines for the management of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) recommend amphotericin B combined with flucytosine (5-FC) for ≥2 weeks as the initial induction treatment of choice. However, access to flucytosine in Africa and Asia, where disease burden is greatest, is inadequate at present. While research into identifying effective and well-tolerated antifungal combinations that do not contain flucytosine continues, an ever-increasing body of evidence from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies points to the benefits of flucytosine in the treatment of CM in both intravenous combinations with amphotericin B and oral combinations with high-dose fluconazole. This article provides an up-to-date review of this evidence, and the current issues and challenges regarding increasing access to this key component of combination antifungal therapy for cryptococcosis

    Accommodating repair actions into gas turbine prognostics

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    Elements of gas turbine degradation, such as compressor fouling, are recoverable through maintenance actions like compressor washing. These actions increase the usable engine life and optimise the performance of the gas turbine. However, these maintenance actions are performed by a separate organization to those undertaking fleet management operations, leading to significant uncertainty in the maintenance state of the asset. The uncertainty surrounding maintenance actions impacts prognostic efficacy. In this paper, we adopt Bayesian on-line change point detection to detect the compressor washing events. Then, the event detection information is used as an input to a prognostic algorithm, advising an update to the estimation of remaining useful life. To illustrate the capability of the approach, we demonstrated our on-line Bayesian change detection algorithms on synthetic and real aircraft engine service data, in order to identify the compressor washing events for a gas turbine and thus provide demonstrably improved prognosis

    Gamma-Ray Burst Spectral Features: Interpretation as X-ray Emission From A Photoionized Plasma

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    Numerous reports have been made of features, either in emission or absorption, in the 10 - 1000 keV spectra of some gamma-ray bursts. Originally interpreted in the context of Galactic neutron star models as cyclotron line emission and e+ee^+ - e^- annihilation features, the recent demonstration that the majority of GRBs lie at cosmological distances make these explanations unlikely. In this letter, we adopt a relativistic fireball model for cosmological GRBs in which dense, metal rich blobs or filaments of plasma are entrained in the relativistic outflow. In the context of this model, we investigate the conditions under which broadband features, similar to those detected, can be observed. We find a limited region of parameter space capable of reproducing the observed GRB spectra. Finally, we discuss possible constraints further high-energy spectral observations could place on fireball model parameters.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal Letters Four pages, 2 figure

    Spatial Relationship between Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections

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    We report on the spatial relationship between solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed during 1996-2005 inclusive. We identified 496 flare-CME pairs considering limb flares (distance from central meridian > 45 deg) with soft X-ray flare size > C3 level. The CMEs were detected by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). We investigated the flare positions with respect to the CME span for the events with X-class, M-class, and C-class flares separately. It is found that the most frequent flare site is at the center of the CME span for all the three classes, but that frequency is different for the different classes. Many X-class flares often lie at the center of the associated CME, while C-class flares widely spread to the outside of the CME span. The former is different from previous studies, which concluded that no preferred flare site exists. We compared our result with the previous studies and conclude that the long-term LASCO observation enabled us to obtain the detailed spatial relation between flares and CMEs. Our finding calls for a closer flare-CME relationship and supports eruption models typified by the CSHKP magnetic reconnection model.Comment: 7 pages; 4 figures; Accepted by the Astrophysical Journa

    The NuSTAR View of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4388

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    We present analysis of NuSTAR X-ray observations in the 3-79 keV energy band of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4388, taken in 2013. The broadband sensitivity of NuSTAR, covering the Fe Kα\alpha line and Compton reflection hump, enables tight constraints to be placed on reflection features in AGN X-ray spectra, thereby providing insight into the geometry of the circumnuclear material. In this observation, we found the X-ray spectrum of NGC 4388 to be well described by a moderately absorbed power law with non-relativistic reflection. We fit the spectrum with phenomenological reflection models and a physical torus model, and find the source to be absorbed by Compton-thin material (NH=(6.5±0.8)×1023_{H} = (6.5\pm0.8)\times10^{23} cm2^{-2}) with a very weak Compton reflection hump (R << 0.09) and an exceptionally large Fe Kα\alpha line (EW =36853+56= 368^{+56}_{-53} eV) for a source with weak or no reflection. Calculations using a thin-shell approximation for the expected Fe Kα\alpha EW indicate that an Fe Kα\alpha line originating from Compton-thin material presents a possible explanation.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures. Accepted for publication in Ap
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