3,314 research outputs found

    Neutrino Physics at DPF 2013

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    The field of neutrino physics was covered at DPF 2013 in 32 talks, including three on theoretical advances and the remainder on experiments that spanned at least 17 different detectors. This summary of those talks cannot do justice to the wealth of information presented, but will provide links to other material where possible. There were allso two plenary session contributions on neutrino physics at this meeting: the current status of what we know about neutrino (oscillation) physics was outlined by Huber, and the next steps in long baseline oscillation expeirments were described by Fleming. This article covers a subset of the topics discussed at the meeting, with emphasis given to those talks that showed data or new results.Comment: Presentation at the DPF 2013 Meeting of the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields, Santa Cruz, California, August 13-17, 201

    A Small Target Neutrino Deep-Inelastic Scattering Experiment at the First Muon Collider

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    Several different scenarios for neutrino scattering experiments using a neutrino beam from the muon collider complex are discussed. The physics reach of a neutrino experiment at the front end of a muon collider is shown to extend far beyond that of current neutrino experiments, since the high intensity neutrino beams one would see at the muon collider allow for a large flexibility in choosing neutrino targets. Measurements of quark spin, A-dependence of the structure function xF3xF_3 and neutral current chiral couplings to quarks are outlined.Comment: 7 pages, 2 figures, to appear in the proceedings of the Workshop on Physics at the First Muon Collider and at the Front End of a Muon Collider, November 1997, Fermila

    How Are HOPE VI Families Faring? Health

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    While the primary goal of the HOPE VI program is to improve the living environment of public housing residents, it also aims to help residents move toward self-sufficiency by helping them find new or better jobs (see page 6). The program's Community Support Services (CSS) component can help identify what residents need, such as job training or placement, to make them more likely to find employment. Relocation itself might help residents find employment if they move to less poor neighborhoods with more job opportunities and better job information networks. Residents who move back to new mixed-income developments on the HOPE VI sites could experience similar improved job networks. However, whether these expectations of increased employment and self-sufficiency are realistic for HOPE VI residents is unclear. For both employed and nonemployed residents, the gap between household income and the income needed for housing and other costs of living is wide. The HOPE VI Panel Study is tracking the well-being of residents from five HOPE VI sites (see page 7). These respondents, mostly African American women, were extremely poor at baseline.[1] The vast majority reported household incomes below the poverty level, and over a third (35 percent) reported annual incomes of less than $5,000. Less than half (45 percent) of respondents were employed, and those who were working earned low wages (Popkin et al. 2002). This brief discusses income and employment findings for working-age adults under 62 years old two years after relocation started at the five HOPE VI Panel Study sites.[2] It examines various barriers to employment for respondents, and considers both expectations for future employment and the services and support systems that might best mitigate those barriers. Future research will examine how residents' employment experiences are affected as relocation is completed and some residents return to the revitalized developments. Brief #4 from the series "Metropolitan Housing and Communities: A Roof Over Their Heads".Notes from this section1. Because many health problems vary significantly by gender and race, and because over 90 percent of the adults in the HOPE VI Panel Study are women and 89 percent are African American, a sample of black women nationally is used as the comparison group. The national data cited in this brief are published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, calculated from the National Health Interview Survey in 2001.National Health Interview Survey data are broken down by sex and race, but not further by poverty status. Nationally, approximately one-third of all black women live in households with incomes below the poverty level. Therefore, the comparison data are biased slightly upward in terms of better health because of the relatively better economic well-being of the national population of black women compared to the HOPE VI sample. Even limiting the comparisons to similar gender, race, and age groups, adults in the HOPE VI study experience health problems more often than other demographically similar groups

    Assessing Blood Culture Contamination

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    The problem of this study was to evaluate blood culture collection procedures utilized at the study hospital to determine the cause of the high contamination rates

    The Role of the Basic Health Program in the Coverage Continuum: Opportunities, Risks and Considerations for States

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    Outlines issues for offering subsidized coverage to those eligible for insurance exchange subsidies by using federal dollars that would otherwise go to those subsidies, including continuity of coverage, impact on exchanges, and financial feasibility

    The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement negotiations and the health of Australians

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    The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement has the potential to negatively impact the health of Australians by raising the cost of medicine and limiting the government\u27s ability to regulate tobacco and alcohol, argues this policy brief based on publicly available and recently leaked negotiating documents. Executive summary The purpose of this policy brief is to inform the debate from a health perspective in the final stages of the negotiations on the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA), particularly during meetings of chief negotiators and ministers in February 2014. This policy brief outlines the evidence about the potential health effects on the Australian community of actions related to the TPPA, based on publicly available and recently leaked negotiating documents. The purpose of the TPPA is to enhance each of the countries’ economic development and that this may lead to improved social and health development. However, although there may be positive impacts on the health and wellbeing of Australians resulting from economic growth, there are also many ways in which the TPPA has the potential to have negative impacts on the health of Australians. This policy brief examines the potential impact of provisions proposed for the TPPA on the health of Australians, focusing on two specific issues: the cost of medicines, and the ability of government to take major steps to improve the health of Australians by regulating the areas of tobacco and alcohol policy. In each of these areas we trace some of the pathways through which provisions that have been proposed for the TPPA may impact on the health of the Australian population, and the health of specific groups within the population. We highlight the ways in which some of the expected economic gains from the TPPA may be undermined by health and economic costs. Concerning the cost of medicine we focus on how proposed provisions in the TPPA could impact the affordability of medicines through several different routes: by delaying the availability of cheaper generic medicines, by altering the operation of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) making it more difficult to keep costs down, and by enabling pharmaceutical companies to sue the government over its pharmaceutical policies. These changes would increase the cost of the PBS for the government and taxpayers. Strategies to compensate for an increase in medication costs include increased cost-sharing, with patients assuming higher co-payments, or funding reallocation from other parts of the healthcare system. Provisions in the TPPA may impact the ability of Government to enforce existing policies and implement new policies that support public health. Australia is internationally recognised for the success of comprehensive strategies to reduce tobacco smoking. And more recently, there are multiple initiatives being proposed to achieve similar success to reduce harmful use of alcohol. We outline several of the many provisions in the TPPA that could affect tobacco and alcohol policies in Australia. Concerning tobacco these include an investor-state dispute settlement mechanism clause in the TPPA would provide more opportunities for tobacco companies to sue the Australian government over strong tobacco control measures. Rules about ‘indirect expropriation’ (i.e. depriving an investor of property, which, if broadly defined, can include intellectual property such as trademarks) and ‘fair and equitable treatment’ provide additional grounds for corporations to argue that their assets are being unfairly affected by government policies and laws. Provisions in the TPPA may impact the Government’s ability to implement effective alcohol control policies such as restrictions on liquor licences, bans or limits on alcohol advertising, and alcohol health warning labels. Concerning alcohol these include provisions in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Chapter of the TPPA which could limit possibilities for introducing innovative alcohol policies, such as requiring health warning labels. Provisions in the wine and spirits annex to the TBT Chapter may limit the options available to create a fully effective alcohol warnings scheme for wine and spirits. If Australia agrees to an investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanism applying to Australia, the alcohol industry will have access to a new legal channel to sue the Australian Government over alcohol policy decisions that adversely impact their investments. We conclude that while there is some potential for the TPPA to contribute to economic development, there is also significant risk that the economic gains which the TPPA may represent, as well as the health of the Australian community, will be threatened if certain proposed provisions are adopted for the TPPA. These include increased direct costs in terms of providing health care and increased use of hospitals, higher costs of obtaining pharmaceuticals, indirect costs associated with lost productivity across society, continuing or exacerbating inequalities in society, and worsening the health of Australia’s already vulnerable communities. Authored by: Katie Hirono, Centre for Health Equity Training, Research and Evaluation, University of New South Wales Deborah Gleeson, School of Public Health and Biosciences, La Trobe University Fiona Haigh, Centre for Health Equity Training, Research and Evaluation, University of New South Wales Patrick Harris, Centre for Health Equity Training, Research and Evaluation, University of New South Wale

    ‘Sleep-Walking Towards Segregation’? The Changing Ethnic Composition of English Schools, 1997-2003 – an Entry Cohort Analysis

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    There has been considerable public debate recently in England regarding levels of segregation (and changes in those levels) not only by neighbourhood but also in schools. Little data are available to evaluate claims that such segregation has been increasing in the country’s schools. This paper uses a data set released by the Department for Education and Skills which indicates the ethnic identity for every student in the entry cohorts for all English primary and secondary schools between 1997-8 (for primary and secondary schools respectively) and 2003. Analysis indicates that there has been some increase in segregation levels in some cities, but only to the expected extent given the changing relative size of the ethnic minority populations there. Segregation is relatively high there, but has only increased if the minority groups’ share of the entry cohorts has been increasing.ethnic segregation, schools

    What did they take away?: Examining newly qualified U.S. teachers’ visions of learning and teaching science in K-8 classrooms

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    This study investigated newly qualified K-8 teachers’ visions of science learning and teaching after they had completed preparation in a science teaching methods course I taught. What visions of science learning and teaching were these newly qualified teachers taking away from my course? How did these visions compare with those advocated by reform documents? I examined their class work and interviewed them after the course to document their ideas about science learning and teaching as they were about to begin their first year of teaching. Other data sources included participants’ assignments, weekly reflections, and multi-media portfolio finals. Semi-structured interviews provided the emic voice of participants, after graduation but before they began to teach. Four strands of science proficiency articulated in a U.S. reform document provided a framework for interpreting activities, assignments, and interview responses. Some participants intentionally incorporated and implemented reform-based strategies in field placements in K-8 classrooms during the methods course and student teaching. The strands of scientific proficiency were evident in activities, assignments and participants’ interviews in varying degrees

    Negotiating healthy trade in Australia: health impact assessment of the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

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    Drawing on leaked texts of potential provisions of the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, this health impact assessment found the potential for negative impacts in the cost of medicines, tobacco control policies, alcohol control policies, and food labeling. Overview The Centre for Health Equity Training Research and Evaluation (CHETRE) has been working with a group of Australian academics and non-government organisations interested in the health of the Australian population to carry out a health impact assessment (HIA) on the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) negotiations. In the absence of official publicly available drafts of the trade agreement, the health impact assessment drew on leaked texts of potential provisions and formulated policy scenarios based on high priority health policies that could be affected by the TPP. The HIA found the potential for negative impacts in each of the four areas under investigation: the cost of medicines; tobacco control policies; alcohol control policies; and food labeling. In each of these areas, the HIA report traces the relevant proposed provisions through to their likely effects on the policy scenarios onto the likely impact on the health of Australians, focusing particularly on vulnerable groups in the Australian community. The report makes a number of recommendations to DFAT regarding the TPP provisions and to the Australian Government regarding the TPP negotiating process