1,978 research outputs found

    Reflections on the Presence of Play in University Arts and Athletics

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    Recent work has explored the extent to which intercollegiate athletics even belong at the university or meet the university’s mission. Just as play seems evident in athletics, it is also present in music, art, and theater. While these programs are popular targets when discussing possible cuts, few question their legitimacy at the university. In this article I argue that the justification for retaining the extracurricular status of intercollegiate sports should be based on their being especially playful. Indeed, on the basis of this argument, I suggest that universities offer even greater and wider access to sport through club and intramural sports. However, while athletics might appear to be more playful, I hold that there is substantially more play present in university music, art, and theater programs than there is in intercollegiate sports

    Enseignement de la méthodologie de recherche en santé dans les programmes de résidence en urgentologie au Canada : survol de l’environnement national

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    Objectives: Our objective was to describe the variability of research methodology teaching among English-speaking Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada emergency medicine (RCPSC-EM) residency programs. We also aimed to identify barriers to teaching research methodology curricula. Methods: An electronic survey was sent by email to program directors and residents of English-speaking RCPSC-EM training programs countrywide. Reminder emails were sent after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Quantitative, descriptive statistics were prepared, and qualitative data and themes were identified. Results: We received a total of 7 responses from the possible 12 program directors (response rate = 58.3%). Out of 354 potential resident respondents, 82 (23.2%) completed the survey. There was disparity between resident and program director responses with respect to the existence of curricula, preparation for Royal College exams, and usefulness for future practice. Barriers to teaching a research methodologies curriculum included lack of time, support, educated faculty, and finances. Conclusion: This survey demonstrates that Canadian EM residency programs vary with respect to research methodology curriculum, and discrepancies exist between residents’ and program directors’ perceptions of the curriculum. Given the lack of a standardized research methodology curriculum for these programs, there is an opportunity to improve training in research methodology

    Microgrids for Improving Manufacturing Energy Efficiency

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    Thirty-one percent of annual energy consumption in the United States occurs within the industrial sector, where manufacturing processes account for the largest amount of energy consumption and carbon emissions. For this reason, energy efficiency in manufacturing facilities is increasingly important for reducing operating costs and improving profits. Using microgrids to generate local sustainable power should reduce energy consumption from the main utility grid along with energy costs and carbon emissions. Also, microgrids have the potential to serve as reliable energy generators in international locations where the utility grid is often unstable. For this research, a smart microgrid system was designed as part of an innovative load management option to improve energy utilization through active Demand-Side Management (DSM). An intelligent active DSM algorithm was developed to manage the intermittent nature of the microgrid and instantaneous demand of the site loads. The controlling algorithm required two input signals; one from the microgrid indicating the availability of renewable energy and another from the manufacturing process indicating energy use as a percent of peak production. Based on these inputs the algorithm had three modes of operation: normal (business as usual), curtailment (shutting off non-critical loads), and energy storage. The results show that active management of a manufacturing microgrid has the potential for saving energy and money by intelligent scheduling of process loads

    A Novel Microgrid Demand-Side Management System for Manufacturing Facilities

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    Thirty-one percent of annual energy consumption in the United States occurs within the industrial sector, where manufacturing processes account for the largest amount of energy consumption and carbon emissions. For this reason, energy efficiency in manufacturing facilities is increasingly important for reducing operating costs and improving profits. Using microgrids to generate local sustainable power should reduce energy consumption from the main utility grid along with energy costs and carbon emissions. Also, microgrids have the potential to serve as reliable energy generators in international locations where the utility grid is often unstable. For this research, a manufacturing process that had approximately 20 kW of peak demand was matched with a solar photovoltaic array that had a peak output of approximately 3 KW. An innovative Demand-Side Management (DSM) strategy was developed to manage the process loads as part of this smart microgrid system. The DSM algorithm managed the intermittent nature of the microgrid and the instantaneous demand of the manufacturing process. The control algorithm required three input signals; one from the microgrid indicating the availability of renewable energy, another from the manufacturing process indicating energy use as a percent of peak production, and historical data for renewable sources and facility demand. Based on these inputs the algorithm had three modes of operation: normal (business as usual), curtailment (shutting off non-critical loads), and energy storage. The results show that a real-time management of a manufacturing process with a microgrid will reduce electrical consumption and peak demand. The renewable energy system for this research was rated to provide up to 13% of the total manufacturing capacity. With actively managing the process loads with the DSM program alone, electrical consumption from the utility grid was reduced by 17% on average. An additional 24% reduction was accomplished when the microgrid and DSM program was enabled together, resulting in a total reduction of 37%. On average, peak demand was reduced by 6%, but due to the intermittency of the renewable source and the billing structure for peak demand, only a 1% reduction was obtained. During a billing period, it only takes one day when solar irradiance is poor to affect the demand reduction capabilities. To achieve further demand reduction, energy storage should be introduced and integrated

    Understanding the presence of mental fatigue in English academy soccer players

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    Research has demonstrated that induced mental fatigue impairs soccer-specific technical, tactical and physical performance in soccer players. The findings are limited by the lack of elite players and low ecological validity of the tasks used to induce mental fatigue, which do not resemble the cognitive demands of soccer. The current study collected survey data from English academy soccer players (n = 256; age groups - U14 – U23), with questions comprising of five themes (descriptors of physical and mental fatigue, travel, education, match-play and fixture congestion). The survey consisted of multiple choice responses, checkboxes and blinded/unblinded (for duration based questions) 0-100 arbitrary unit (AU) slider scales. Listening to music (81.6% of players), using social media (58.3%) and watching videos (34.3%) were the most common pre-match activities. Pre-match subjective mental fatigue was low (18.7±18.8 AU), and most frequently reported at the end of a match (47±26 AU) and remained elevated 24-hours post-match (36±27 AU). Travel (29±24 AU), fixture congestion (44±25 AU) and education (30±26 AU) demonstrated a low to moderate presence of subjective mental fatigue. These findings provide an overview of activities performed by English academy soccer players pre-match, and demonstrate that mental fatigue is experienced as a result of match-play

    Hindu-Christian Conflict in India: Globalization, Conversion, and the Coterminal Castes and Tribes

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    While Hindu-Muslim violence in India has received a great deal of scholarly attention, Hindu-Christian violence has not. This article seeks to contribute to the analysis of Hindu-Christian violence, and to elucidate the curious alliance, in that violence, of largely upper-caste, anti-minority Hindu nationalists with lower-status groups, by analyzing both with reference to the varied processes of globalization. The article begins with a short review of the history of anti-Christian rhetoric in India, and then discusses and critiques a number of inadequately unicausal explanations of communal violence before arguing, with reference to the work of Mark Taylor, that only theories linking local and even individual social behaviors to larger, global processes like globalization can adequately honor the truly “webby” nature of the social world

    3q26 Amplification is Rarely Present in Women Whose LSIL Cytology does not Represent CIN 2+ Disease

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    Comparative Medicine - OneHealth and Comparative Medicine Poster SessionObjective: 10-17% of women with LSIL cytology truly have CIN 2+ disease at colposcopically directed biopsy and 20% of the CIN 2+ lesions derive from women with LSIL cytology. No molecular marker has yet been able to triage LSIL cytology effectively. If possible, the triage would spare women the referral to colposcopy. Irreversible chromosomal damage occurs during oncogenesis. Increasing cervical dysplastic severity occurs with increasing amplification of the 3q26 chromosomal region. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the test characteristics of 3q26 amplification in women whose routine cytology is reported as LSIL with emphasis on the negative predictive value for reassurance. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using the available SurePath™ liquid cytology LSIL archival samples from women 17-59 years old which were linked to colposcopically directed biopsy samples taken on average 36 days after cytology sampling (3-90 day range). Nuclei from the LSIL samples were hybridized with a single-copy probe for the chromosome 3q26 region and a control probe for the centromeric alpha repeat sequence of chromosome 7, using standard FISH methods. Amplification was defined as five or more signals present in at least 2 cells. Results: Of the 68 paired cytology/biopsy samples, 3q26 amplification occurred in 40% of the women with CIN 2+ disease (sensitivity 95% CI: 12, 74). There was no amplification in 91% of women with less than CIN 2 disease (specificity 95% CI: 81, 97); and the negative predictive value was 90% (79, 96). Conclusions: The lack of 3q26 amplification in women with screening cytology LSIL results offers reassurance that CIN 2+ disease has not developed. Future prospective studies are ongoing

    Equality, Quasi-Implicit Products, and Large Eliminations

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    This paper presents a type theory with a form of equality reflection: provable equalities can be used to coerce the type of a term. Coercions and other annotations, including implicit arguments, are dropped during reduction of terms. We develop the metatheory for an undecidable version of the system with unannotated terms. We then devise a decidable system with annotated terms, justified in terms of the unannotated system. Finally, we show how the approach can be extended to account for large eliminations, using what we call quasi-implicit products.Comment: In Proceedings ITRS 2010, arXiv:1101.410

    Isokinetic strength qualities that differentiate rapid deceleration performance in male youth academy soccer players

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    Introduction Decelerating (DEC) is just as frequent as accelerating in contemporary soccer match play (Russell et al., 2014). Recent evidence suggests that lower body eccentric strength directly improves the ability of a player to produce and tolerate braking forces (Spiteri et al., 2014). The aim of the present study was to identify if measures of isokinetic strength can differentiate performance of a rapid DEC maneuver. Method Nineteen (n=19) academy youth soccer players (age: 16.7 + 1yrs; height: 175 + 8.4cm ; body mass: 69.1+ 7.5kg; body fat: 9.5 + 3.9%) participated in the study. Tests included: isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex ΙΙ, Cybex International Inc., New York, USA) strength profiling of quadricep (Q) and hamstring (H) peak concentric (con) and eccentric (ecc) torque (both dominant [kicking leg] and non-dominant legs) assessed at slow (60°/s) and fast (180°/s) angular velocities. Functional H:Q ratios representative of knee flexion (Hcon:Qecc) and extension (Hecc:Qcon) was also calculated; 30m linear sprint time (with 5m, 10m and 20m splits) was recorded using a single beam timing system (Witty, Microgate, Italy) and rapid DEC quantified using time to stop (TTS) and distance to stop (DTS) determined following a 20m maximal acceleration (within 5% threshold of best 20m linear sprint time) using video analysis (Dartfish ProSuite 2011, Fribourg, Switzerland) captured from a 50Hz video camera (Panasonic HDC-HS900, Japan). Results 10, 20 and 30m sprint times had significantly large correlations with fast con peak Q torque (dom, r=-0.624, -0.568, - 0.621 and non-dom, r=-0.513, -0.512, -0.509) with fast peak H torque comprising significant correlations in the dom leg (r= -0.773, -0.561, -0.761) with moderate to large correlations in the non-dom leg (r= -0.5, -0.468, -0.464). At slow velocity con peak H torque had moderate to large correlations with 10, 20 and 30m sprint times. No significant correlations were found for peak con strength in either Q or H for DEC performance (TTS and DTS). Slow velocity Ecc peak Q torque (dom, r= -0.503, nondom, r=-0.542) and time to peak torque (r=-0.465) was significantly correlated to DEC TTS. No significant correlations were found for fast ecc strength parameters in Q or H for either sprint or DEC performance. Sprint and DEC performance had no significant correlations. Discussion The present study illustrates the need for specific strength qualities for attainment of high running velocities and rapid DEC performance. Specifically, players with superior sprint speed can produce high peak con forces in both Q and H at fast velocities. DEC seems to be a unique movement skill requiring specific ecc strength qualities. Interestingly, in this study slow velocity ecc strength of the Q seems to be critical for production of braking forces and reducing the time spent DEC. Increased time spent DEC has been found to increase tissue damage and muscle soreness, subsequently affecting post match recovery kinetics (Young et al., 2012). In conclusion this study highlights the need for careful consideration to developing strength qualities needed for DEC alongside those more commonly known for sprinting and accelerating. References Russell, M., Sparkes, W., Northeast, J., Cook, C. J., Love, T. D., Bracken, R. M., & Kilduff, L. P. (2014). Changes in acceleration and deceleration capacity throughout professional soccer match-play. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, in press. Spiteri, T., Nimphius, S., Hart, N. H., Specos, C., Sheppard, J. M., & Newton, R. U. (2014). Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(9), 2415–23. Young, W. B., Hepner, J., & Robbins, D. W. (2012). Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(2), 492–6

    Relativistic Corrections to the Triton Binding Energy

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    The influence of relativity on the triton binding energy is investigated. The relativistic three-dimensional version of the Bethe-Salpeter equation proposed by Blankenbecler and Sugar (BbS) is used. Relativistic (non-separable) one-boson-exchange potentials (constructed in the BbS framework) are employed for the two-nucleon interaction. In a 34-channel Faddeev calculation, it is found that relativistic effects increase the triton binding energy by about 0.2 MeV. Including charge-dependence (besides relativity), the final triton binding energy predictions are 8.33 and 8.16 MeV for the Bonn A and B potential, respectively.Comment: 25 pages of text (latex), 1 figure (not included, available upon request
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