2,159 research outputs found

    Local dynamics of a randomly pinned crack front: A numerical study

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    We investigate numerically the dynamics of crack propagation along a weak plane using a model consisting of fibers connecting a soft and a hard clamp. This bottom-up model has previously been shown to contain the competition of two crack propagation mechanisms: coalescence of damage with the front on small scales and pinned elastic line motion on large scales. We investigate the dynamical scaling properties of the model, both on small and large scale. The model results compare favorable with experimental results

    Staging a ‘real’ masculinity in a ‘fake’ world: creativity, (in)authenticity, and the gendering of musical labour

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    © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered,transformed, or built upon in any way.A distinction between creativity and commerce as opposing forces is central to discourses surrounding popular music, and this distinction facilitates a gendered hierarchy of valued and devalued forms of musical labour. The practice of singing has typically been coded as feminine and has held a lower status than the masculinized practices of playing an instrument or composing. Accordingly, male pop singers tend to be assessed as inauthentic – and, by extension, insufficiently masculine – by some critics and audiences. In this article, I investigate how entwined notions of creativity and authenticity might shape contemporary pop artists’ representations of masculinity. Through a case study of Justin Timberlake’s music video Say Something (2018), I demonstrate how the showcasing of particular forms of musical labour can function to authenticate constructions of masculinity in accordance with artistic and creative ideals with roots in the Romantic era. My approach to audiovisual analysis merges perspectives from critical musicology and cultural studies, in order to investigate the processes by which ‘real’ masculinities are articulated on multiple levelspublishedVersio

    The Earth is Sick: Environmentalism and the Politics of Age and Gender in Children's Musical Culture

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    The published work is protected by a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.Anthropogenic climate change is among the most widely debated topics of our time, and recent years have seen the growing impact of children’s involvement in environmental issues. While Greta Thunberg and the School Strike for Climate movement are key examples in this regard, there is another tendency deserving of attention that involves the increased prominence of environmentalism in children’s music and culture. This article investigates the song and music video Kloden er syk (“The Earth is Sick”) by Anna & Emma, which won the 2019 edition of the Norwegian music competition Melodi Grand Prix Junior. I explore how the audiovisual aesthetics of Kloden er syk encourage solidarity for environmentalist causes, and also discuss disparaging responses to the song and video in order to explicate how age and gender are politicized for the purpose of discrediting young activists and musicians. Ultimately, the article aims to shed light on the distinctly musical (and sociopolitical) ways in which children and young people are implicated in environmental debates.publishedVersio

    GPs' implicit prioritization through clinical choices – evidence from three national health services

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    Acknowledgments The authors are grateful for valuable comments and inputs from participants at a series of seminars and conferences as well as to our three anonymous referees.Peer reviewedPostprin

    Phase-field Modeling of Fracture in Heterogeneous Materials

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    The prediction of fracture is of utmost importance regarding the design of modern, specifically tailored engineering materials. These materials are often heterogeneous, \ie their properties vary in space. This can either be achieved purposefully by combining two or more constituents to profit from a more resilient composite material, or happen due to unavoidable imperfections. In any case, purely experimental assessment of failure is tedious and circuitous as soon as the structure of interest gets more complex, and the involvement of numerical models is inevitable. In this work, the phase-field approach to fracture is applied which is able to capture manifold crack phenomena inherently and sidesteps the need for remeshing by describing the crack as a continuous field. The phase-field model is extended to a fully diffuse incorporation of heterogeneities: A static order parameter smoothly transitions from one to the other bulk material constituent, while the weak, brittle interface is incorporated via a continuous fracture toughness distribution. The sharp interface jump conditions still hold for the diffuse representation since a partial rank-1 relaxation is employed in accordance with the unilateral contact condition of the phase-field model. Moreover, a compensation procedure ensures the independence of the interface fracture toughness from interface and phase-field length scales. The model is validated by a comparison to analytical results and the predictive power is demonstrated by the deduction of direction-dependent, effective fracture properties of heterogeneous microstructures.Die Vorhersage des Bruchverhaltens ist fĂŒr die Entwicklung moderner, speziell zugeschnittener technischer Werkstoffe von grĂ¶ĂŸter Bedeutung. Diese Materialien sind oft heterogen, d.h. ihre Eigenschaften variieren im Raum. Dies kann entweder absichtlich durch die Kombination zweier oder mehrerer Bestandteile erreicht werden, um von einem widerstandsfĂ€higeren Verbundwerkstoff zu profitieren, oder durch unvermeidbare Imperfektionen geschehen. In jedem Fall ist eine rein experimentelle Versagensbewertung komplexer Strukturen mĂŒhsam und umstĂ€ndlich, und die Nutzung numerischer Modelle unvermeidlich. In dieser Arbeit werden BrĂŒche mittels Phasenfeldmethode modelliert, wodurch vielfĂ€ltige RissphĂ€nomene erfasst werden können und die Notwendigkeit einer Neuvernetzung durch die Beschreibung des Risses als kontinuierliches Feld entfĂ€llt. Das Phasenfeldmodell wird um eine vollstĂ€ndig diffuse Einbindung von HeterogenitĂ€ten erweitert: Ein statischer Orderparameter beschreibt den glatten Übergang zwischen zwei Bestandteilen des Materials, wĂ€hrend die geschwĂ€chte, spröde GrenzflĂ€che durch eine kontinuierliche BruchzĂ€higkeitsverteilung eingebunden wird. Die scharfen GrenzflĂ€chensprungbedingungen gelten auch fĂŒr die diffuse Darstellung, da eine partielle Rang-1 Relaxation in Übereinstimmung mit der unilateralen RissflĂ€chenkontaktbedingung genutzt wird. DarĂŒber hinaus gewĂ€hrleistet ein Kompensationsverfahren die UnabhĂ€ngigkeit der GrenzflĂ€chenbruchzĂ€higkeit von inhĂ€renten LĂ€ngenskalen der GrenzflĂ€che und des Rissphasenfelds. Das Modell wird durch einen Vergleich mit analytischen Ergebnissen validiert und die Vorhersagekraft wird durch die Ableitung richtungsabhĂ€ngiger, effektiver Brucheigenschaften heterogener Mikrostrukturen demonstriert