329 research outputs found

    \u27A Protest against Protestantism\u27: Hicksite Friends and the Bible in the Nineteenth Century

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    Differing views of the nature and authority of Scripture were at the heart of the Hicksite Separation of 1827-1828 among American Friends. Mter the separation, the Bible became a source of conflict among Hicksites. Some Hicksite leaders feared anything that tended to diminish the authority of the Bible; other Hicksites argued for a critical view. By 1870, the liberals had the upper hand, as virtually all Hicksite Quakers came to share views of the Bible, including a sympathy for critical scholarship, that mirrored the modernist movement among Protestants

    \u27Chipping at the Landmarks of our Fathers\u27: The Decline of the Testimony against Hireling Ministry in the Nineteenth Century

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    One of the distinctive features of Quakerism from the 1650s until the 1870s was its stance against any kind of pay for ministers, what Friends referred to as \u27hireling ministry\u27. Friends viewed a paid, authoritative pastoral ministry as contrary to Scripture, as tending toward preaching that pleased humans rather than God, as limiting the leadings of the Holy Spirit, and as generally corrupting. One of the criticisms of Orthodox by Hicksite Friends in the 1 820s was that the Orthodox were compromising this testimony by associating with clergy of other denominations in reform and humanitarian causes, and both Orthodox and Hicksite Friends in the United States invoked this tradition to discourage Friends from joining abolition societies after 1 830. Between 1 860 and 1 900, however, most Friends softened their stance. Hicksites, while eschewing paid ministry, came to view labeling other minister as \u27hirelings\u27 as being uncharitable and judgmental. American Gurneyites, swept up in a wave of revivalism in the 1 870s, came to embrace pastoral ministry as the best way of caring for converts. In the British Isles, however, equally evangelical Friends of Gurneyite sympathies, for complex reasons, while also ceasing to label other clergy as \u27hirelings\u27, after some controversy and for complex reasons, rejected the pastoral system

    The Divergent Paths of Iowa Quakers in the Nineteenth Century

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    The Transformation of the American Quaker Narrative Style, 1850-1910

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    Vibrational Spectra of a Mechanosensitive Channel

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    We report the simulated vibrational spectra of a mechanosensitive membrane channel in different gating states. Our results show that while linear absorption is insensitive to structural differences, linear dichroism and sum-frequency generation spectroscopies are sensitive to the orientation of the transmembrane helices, which is changing during the opening process. Linear dichroism cannot distinguish an intermediate structure from the closed structure, but sum-frequency generation can. In addition, we find that two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy can be used to distinguish all three investigated gating states of the mechanosensitive membrane channel.

    MRI-TRUS fusion for electrode positioning during irreversible electroporation for treatment of prostate cancer

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    We aimed to introduce an approach for image-guided positioning of electrodes for irreversible electroporation (IRE) in patients with prostate cancer using a magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasonography (MRI-TRUS) fusion technique. In 10 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven Gleason score ≤3+4 prostate cancer, 19 G electrodes were inserted into the prostate using a transperineal access. Magnetic resonance images of the prostate acquired before IRE were fused with transrectal ultrasound images acquired during IRE. The position of the ultrasound probe was tracked via a sensor and corresponding magnetic resonance images were calculated in real-time. While MRI allowed delineation of the target volume, the position of the electrodes could be visualized on ultrasound images; the distance between individual electrode pairs was measured. Based on these measurements the software installed on the IRE unit was able to calculate the voltage necessary to generate the electric field for ablation. Using contrast-enhanced ultrasound, changes in perfusion within the ablation zone after IRE were documented. This technique allowed positioning of the electrodes around the target volume under image guidance in all patients treated with IRE. The target lesion and a safety margin were covered within the estimated ablation zone. MRI-TRUS guidance for IRE combines the advantages of good visualization of the target lesion on MRI with the ability of ultrasound to acquire imaging in real-time with a mobile device

    Cardiac MR Elastography: Comparison with left ventricular pressure measurement

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    Purpose of the Study: To compare magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) with ventricular pressure changes in an animal model. Methods: Three pigs of different cardiac physiology (weight, 25 to 53 kg; heart rate, 61 to 93 bpm; left ventricular [LV] end-diastolic volume, 35 to 70 ml) were subjected to invasive LV pressure measurement by catheter and noninvasive cardiac MRE. Cardiac MRE was performed in a short-axis view of the heart and applying a 48.3-Hz shear-wave stimulus. Relative changes in LV-shear wave amplitudes during the cardiac cycle were analyzed. Correlation coefficients between wave amplitudes and LV pressure as well as between wave amplitudes and LV diameter were determined. Results: A relationship between MRE and LV pressure was observed in all three animals (R-square [greater than or equal to] 0.76). No correlation was observed between MRE and LV diameter (R-square [less than or equal to] 0.15). Instead, shear wave amplitudes decreased 102 +/- 58 ms earlier than LV diameters at systole and amplitudes increased 175 +/- 40 ms before LV dilatation at diastole. Amplitude ratios between diastole and systole ranged from 2.0 to 2.8, corresponding to LV pressure differences of 60 to 73 mmHg. Conclusion: Externally induced shear waves provide information reflecting intraventricular pressure changes which, if substantiated in further experiments, has potential to make cardiac MRE a unique noninvasive imaging modality for measuring pressure-volume function of the heart

    Transduced viral IL-10 is exocytosed from lacrimal acinar secretory vesicles in a myosin-dependent manner in response to carbachol

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    The purpose of this study was to determine the intracellular trafficking and release pathways for the therapeutic protein, viral IL-10 (vIL-10), from transduced acinar epithelial cells from rabbit lacrimal gland. Primary cultured rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells (LGACs) were transduced with adenovirus serotype 5 containing viral interleukin-10 (AdvIL-10). The distribution of vIL-10 was assessed by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Carbachol (CCH)-stimulated release of vIL-10 was quantified by ELISA. vIL-10 localization and exocytosis was probed in response to treatments with agents modulating actin- and myosin-based transport. vIL-10 immunoreactivity was detected in large intracellular vesicles in transduced LGAC. vIL-10 was partially co-localized with biosynthetic but not endosomal compartment markers. vIL-10 release was sensitive to CCH, and the kinetics of release showed an initial burst phase that was similar but not identical to that of the secretory protein, β-hexosaminidase. Disassembly of actin filaments with latrunculin B significantly increased CCH-stimulated vIL-10 secretion, suggesting that vIL-10 was released from stores sequestered beneath the subapical actin barrier. That release required the activity of actin-dependent myosin motors previously implicated in secretory vesicle exocytosis was confirmed by findings that CCH-stimulated vIL-10 release was reduced by inhibition of non-muscle myosin 2 and myosin 5c function, using ML-7 and overexpression of dominant negative myosin 5c, respectively. These results suggest that the majority of vIL-10 transgene product is packaged into a subpopulation of secretory vesicles that utilize actin-dependent myosin motors for aspects of actin coat assembly, compound fusion and exocytosis at the apical plasma membrane in response to CCH stimulation
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