3,251 research outputs found

    A Human Relations Paradox

    Get PDF
    We present a variant of a general equilibrium model with group formation to study how changes of non-consumptive benefits from group formation impact on the well-being of group members. We identify a human relations paradox: Positive externalities increase, but none of the group members gains in equilibrium. Moreover, a member who experiences an increase of positive emotional benefits in a group may become worse off in equilibrium.Group formation, competitive markets, human relation, exit

    Club Theory and Household Formation

    Get PDF
    The relationship between our general equilibrium model with multi- member households and club models with multiple private goods is investigated. The main distinction in the definitions consists of the equilibrium concepts. As a rule, competitive equilibria among house- holds where no group of consumers can benefit from forming a new household and valuation equilibria prove equivalent in the absence of consumption externalities, but not in their presence.Household Behavior, Household Formation, General Equilibrium, Clubs

    Bargaining Power and Equilibrium Consumption

    Get PDF
    We examine how a shift of bargaining power within households operating in a competitive market environment affects equilibrium allocation and welfare. If price effects are sufficiently small, then typically an individual benefits from an increase of bargaining power, necessarily to the detriment of others. If price effects are drastic the welfare of all household members moves in the same direction when bargaining power shifts, at the expense (or for the benefit) of outside consumers. Typically a shift of bargaining power within a set of households also impacts upon other households. We show that each individual of a sociological group tends to benefit if he can increase his bargaining power, but suffers if others in his group do the same.household behavior, bargaining power, local and global changes, price effects, general equilibrium

    General Equilibrium with Multi-Member Households and Production

    Get PDF
    We consider firms and multi-member households operating in a competitive market environment. Households are endowed with resources (commodity bundles) and shares of firm ownership. Household members are characterized by individual preferences, possibly with intra-household consumption externalities. Household decisions adhere to the collective rationality model. Existence of general equilibrium and validity of the first welfare theorem are investigated.household behavior, general equilibrium, production

    When Inefficiency Begets Efficiency.

    Get PDF
    Collective consumption decisions taken by the members of a household may prove inefficient. The impact of such inefficient household decisions on market performance is investigated. At one extreme, market efficiency can occur even when household decisions are inefficient, namely when household inefficiencies are merely due to inefficient net trades with the market. At the other extreme, market efficiency is bound to fail, if household inefficiencies are solely caused by an inefficient distribution of a household's aggregate consumption to its individual members. This leads us to consider competitive forces as a disciplinary device for households. When households compete for both resources and members then household stability requires efficient or not too inefficient internal distribution.

    When Inefficiency Begets Efficiency

    Get PDF
    Collective consumption decisions taken by the members of a household may prove inefficient. The impact of such inefficient household decisions on market performance is investigated. At one extreme, market efficiency can occur even when household decisions are inefficient, namely when household inefficiencies are merely due to inefficient net trades with the market. At the other extreme, market efficiency is bound to fail, if household inefficiencies are solely caused by an inefficient distribution of a household's aggregate consumption to its individual members. This leads us to consider competitive forces as a disciplinary device for households. When households compete for both resources and members then household stability requires efficient or not too inefficient internal distribution.Allocative efficiency, General equilibrium, Household behavior

    Hierarchical Trade and Endogenous Price Distortions

    Get PDF
    We study the allocation of commodities through a two-stage hierarchy of competitive markets. Groups or countries trade at global prices while individuals within a group trade at local prices. We identify the free trade and the autarky equilibrium as polar cases. We show that no other two-stage market equilibria exist if the commodity space is two-dimensional. An example demonstrates that other, so-called intermediate equilibria exist for three-dimensional commodity spaces. The example also exhibits endogenous price distortions in third countries when some countries follow distortionary trade policies. We give two existence proofs for intermediate equilibria in higher dimensions. Each proof provides an explicit construction of special classes of intermediate equilibria.

    Voice and Bargaining Power

    Get PDF
    We propose a formal concept of the power of voice in the context of a simple model where individuals form groups and trade in competitive markets. Individuals use outside options in two different ways. Actual outside options reflect the possibility to exit or to join other existing groups. Hypothetical outside options refer to hypothetical groups that are ultimately not formed. Articulation of hypothetical outside options in the bargaining process determines the relative bargaining power of the members of a group, which constitutes an instance of the power of voice. The adopted equilibrium concept endogenizes the outside options as well as the power of voice. In our illustrative example, there exists an equilibrium that uniquely determines the power of voice and the allocation of commodities.Power of Voice, competitive equilibria, group formation, bargaining, articulation of outside options

    Competitive Markets, Collective Decisions and Group Formation

    Get PDF
    We consider a general equilibrium model where groups operating in a competitive market environment can have several members and make efficient collective consumption decisions. Individuals have the option to leave the group and make it on their own or join another group. We study the effect of these outside options on group formation, group stability, equilibrium existence, and equilibrium efficiency.household behavior, household formation, collective decision making, general equilibrium

    Exit and Power in General Equilibrium

    Get PDF
    We integrate individual power in groups into general equilibrium models. The relationship between group formation, resource allocation, and the power of specific individuals or particular sociological groups is investigated. We introduce, via an illustrative example, three appealing concepts of power and show that there is no monotonic relationship between these concepts. Then we examine existence of competitive equilibria with free exit and study whether maximal individual power is consistent with Pareto efficiency. As applications, we discuss when power spillovers occur and we identify human relation paradoxes: positiveexternalities increase, but none of the household members gains in equilibrium. We further identify implicit, determinate and de facto power.group formation, competitive markets, power, exit
    corecore