687 research outputs found

    Visual Elements and Cognitive Biases Influence Interpretations of Trends in Scatter Plots

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    Visualizations are common methods to convey information but also increasingly used to spread misinformation. It is therefore important to understand the factors people use to interpret visualizations. In this paper, we focus on factors that influence interpretations of scatter plots, investigating the extent to which common visual aspects of scatter plots (outliers and trend lines) and cognitive biases (people's beliefs) influence perception of correlation trends. We highlight three main findings: outliers skew trend perception but exert less influence than other points; trend lines make trends seem stronger but also mitigate the influence of some outliers; and people's beliefs have a small influence on perceptions of weak, but not strong correlations. From these results we derive guidelines for adjusting visual elements to mitigate the influence of factors that distort interpretations of scatter plots. We explore how these guidelines may generalize to other visualization types and make recommendations for future studies.Comment: 18 pages, 6 figure, 2 table

    Drug inhibition of HDAC3 and epigenetic control of differentiation in Apicomplexa parasites

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    Plasmodium and Toxoplasma are parasites of major medical importance that belong to the Apicomplexa phylum of protozoa. These parasites transform into various stages during their life cycle and express a specific set of proteins at each stage. Although little is yet known of how gene expression is controlled in Apicomplexa, histone modifications, particularly acetylation, are emerging as key regulators of parasite differentiation and stage conversion. We investigated the anti-Apicomplexa effect of FR235222, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). We show that FR235222 is active against a variety of Apicomplexa genera, including Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, and is more potent than other HDACi's such as trichostatin A and the clinically relevant compound pyrimethamine. We identify T. gondii HDAC3 (TgHDAC3) as the target of FR235222 in Toxoplasma tachyzoites and demonstrate the crucial role of the conserved and Apicomplexa HDAC-specific residue TgHDAC3 T99 in the inhibitory activity of the drug. We also show that FR235222 induces differentiation of the tachyzoite (replicative) into the bradyzoite (nonreplicative) stage. Additionally, via its anti-TgHDAC3 activity, FR235222 influences the expression of ‚ąľ370 genes, a third of which are stage-specifically expressed. These results identify FR235222 as a potent HDACi of Apicomplexa, and establish HDAC3 as a central regulator of gene expression and stage conversion in Toxoplasma and, likely, other Apicomplexa

    Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol

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    High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries(1,2). However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world(3) and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health(4,5). However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol-which is a marker of cardiovascular riskchanged from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million-4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.Peer reviewe

    Search for new particles in events with energetic jets and large missing transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV

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    A search is presented for new particles produced at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV, using events with energetic jets and large missing transverse momentum. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 101 fb(-1), collected in 2017-2018 with the CMS detector. Machine learning techniques are used to define separate categories for events with narrow jets from initial-state radiation and events with large-radius jets consistent with a hadronic decay of a W or Z boson. A statistical combination is made with an earlier search based on a data sample of 36 fb(-1), collected in 2016. No significant excess of events is observed with respect to the standard model background expectation determined from control samples in data. The results are interpreted in terms of limits on the branching fraction of an invisible decay of the Higgs boson, as well as constraints on simplified models of dark matter, on first-generation scalar leptoquarks decaying to quarks and neutrinos, and on models with large extra dimensions. Several of the new limits, specifically for spin-1 dark matter mediators, pseudoscalar mediators, colored mediators, and leptoquarks, are the most restrictive to date.Peer reviewe

    MUSiC : a model-unspecific search for new physics in proton-proton collisions at root s=13TeV