41,723 research outputs found

    Neptune's Migration into a Stirred-Up Kuiper Belt: A Detailed Comparison of Simulations to Observations

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    Nbody simulations are used to examine the consequences of Neptune's outward migration into the Kuiper Belt, with the simulated endstates being compared rigorously and quantitatively to the observations. These simulations confirm the findings of Chiang et al. (2003), who showed that Neptune's migration into a previously stirred-up Kuiper Belt can account for the Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) known to librate at Neptune's 5:2 resonance. We also find that capture is possible at many other weak, high-order mean motion resonances, such as the 11:6, 13:7, 13:6, 9:4, 7:3, 12:5, 8:3, 3:1, 7:2, and the 4:1. The more distant of these resonances, such as the 9:4, 7:3, 5:2, and the 3:1, can also capture particles in stable, eccentric orbits beyond 50 AU, in the region of phase space conventionally known as the Scattered Disk. Indeed, 90% of the simulated particles that persist over the age of the Solar System in the so-called Scattered Disk zone never had a close encounter with Neptune, but instead were promoted into these eccentric orbits by Neptune's resonances during the migration epoch. This indicates that the observed Scattered Disk might not be so scattered. This model also produced only a handful of Centaurs, all of which originated at Neptune's mean motion resonances in the Kuiper Belt. We also report estimates of the abundances and masses of the Belt's various subpopulations (e.g., the resonant KBOs, the Main Belt, and the so-called Scattered Disk), and also provide upper limits on the abundance of Centaurs and Neptune's Trojans, as well as upper limits on the sizes and abundances of hypothetical KBOs that might inhabit the a>50 AU zone.Comment: 60 pages, 16 figures. Accepted for publication in the Astronomical Journa

    Continuity in the Law of International Organization

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    Method for the production of strongly adhesive films on titanium and titanium alloys with a metallization process

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    A process for the spray-application of a strongly adhesive, thick antifriction layer on titanium and titanium alloys is proposed. The titanium/titanium alloy component to be coated is first subjected to cleaning in a pickling bath with reducing additives and sand-blasting, then coated with an intermediate layer of nickel, after which the final layer is applied. The formation of TiNi at the interface ensures strong bonding of the antifriction layer


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    Agricultural and Food Policy,


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    Extensions in FormCalc 5.3

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    We present a new tool for editing Feynman diagrams as well as several extensions in version 5.3 of the package FormCalc for the calculation of Feynman diagrams.Comment: 8 pages, contribution to the proceedings of the ACAT workshop, Amsterdam, April 23-27, 200
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