679 research outputs found

    Prevalence estimates of multimorbidity: a comparative study of two sources

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Published prevalence studies on multimorbidity present diverse data collection methods, sources of data, targeted age groups, diagnoses considered and study populations, making the comparability of prevalence estimates questionable. The objective of this study was to compare prevalence estimates of multimorbidity derived from two sources and to examine the impact of the number of diagnoses considered in the measurement of multimorbidity.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Prevalence of multimorbidity was estimated in adults over 25 years of age from two separate Canadian studies: a 2005 survey of 26,000 respondents randomly selected from the general population and a 2003 study of 980 patients from 21 family practices. We estimated the prevalence of multimorbidity based on the co-occurrence of ≥ 2 and ≥ 3 diseases of the seven diseases listed in the general population survey. For primary care patients, we also estimated multimorbidity prevalence using an open list of chronic diseases.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Prevalence estimates were considerably higher for each age group in the primary care sample than in the general population. For primary care patients, the number of chronic diseases considered for estimates resulted in large differences, especially in younger age groups. The prevalence of multimorbidity increased with age in both study populations.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The prevalence of multimorbidity was substantially lower when estimated in a general population than in a family practice-based sample and was higher when the number of conditions considered increased.</p

    At the interface of community and healthcare systems: a longitudinal cohort study on evolving health and the impact of primary healthcare from the patient's perspectiv

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Massive efforts in Canada have been made to renew primary healthcare. However, although early evaluations of initiatives and research on certain aspects of the reform are promising, none have examined the link between patient assessments of care and health outcomes or the impacts at a population level. The goal of this project is to examine the effect of patient-centred and effective primary healthcare on the evolution of chronic illness burden and health functioning in a population, and in particularly vulnerable groups: the multi-morbid and the poor.</p> <p>Methods/Design</p> <p>A randomly selected cohort of 2000 adults aged 25 to 75 years will be recruited within the geographic boundaries of four local healthcare networks in Quebec. At recruitment, cohort members will report on socio-demographic information, functional health and healthcare use. Two weeks, 12 months and 24 months after recruitment, cohort participants will complete a self-administered questionnaire on current health and health behaviours in order to evaluate primary healthcare received in the previous year.</p> <p>The dependent variables are calculated as change over time of functional health status, chronic illness burden, and health behaviours. Dimensions of patient-centred care and clinical processes are measured using sub-scales of validated instruments. We will use Poisson regression modelling to estimate the incidence rate of chronic illness burden scores and structural equation modelling to explore relationships between variables and to examine the impact of dimensions of patient-centred care and effective primary healthcare.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>Results will provide valuable information for primary healthcare clinicians on the course of chronic illness over time and the impact on health outcomes of accessible, patient-centred and effective care. A demonstration of impact will contribute to the promotion of continuous quality improvement activities at a clinical level. While considerable advances have been made in the management of specific chronic illnesses, this will make a unique contribution to effective care for persons with multiple morbidities. Furthermore, the cohort and data architecture will serve as a research platform for future projects.</p

    Residence time distributions in surface transient storage zones in streams : estimation via signal deconvolution

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    Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Water Resources Research 47 (2011): W05509, doi:10.1029/2010WR009959.Little is known about the impact of surface transient storage (STS) zones on reach-scale transport and the fate of dissolved nutrients in streams. Exchange with these locations may influence the rates of nutrient cycling often observed in whole-stream tracer experiments, particularly because they are sites of organic matter collection and lower flow velocities than those observed in the thalweg. We performed a conservative stream tracer experiment (slug of dissolved NaCl) in the Ipswich River in northeastern Massachusetts and collected solute tracer data both in the thalweg and adjacent STS zones at three locations in a fifth-order reach. Tracer time series observed in STS zones are an aggregate of residence time distributions (RTDs) of the upstream transport to that point (RTDTHAL) and that of the temporary storage within these zones (RTDSTS). Here we demonstrate the separation of these two RTDs to determine the RTDSTS specifically. Total residence times for these individual STS zones range from 4.5 to 7.5 h, suggesting that these zones have the potential to host important biogeochemical transformations in stream systems. All of the RTDSTS show substantial deviations from the ideal prescribed by the two-state (mobile/immobile) mass transfer equations. The deviations indicate a model mismatch and that parameter estimation based on the mass transfer equations will yield misleading values.This research was funded by the National Science Foundation, grants DEB 06-14350 and EAR 07- 49035, and DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER15841

    Lifestyle factors and multimorbidity: a cross sectional study

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    Background: Lifestyle factors have been associated mostly with individual chronic diseases. We investigated the relationship between lifestyle factors (individual and combined) and the co-occurrence of multiple chronic diseases. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of results from the Program of Research on the Evolution of a Cohort Investigating Health System Effects (PRECISE) in Quebec, Canada. Subjects aged 45 years and older. A randomly-selected cohort in the general population recruited by telephone. Multimorbidity (3 or more chronic diseases) was measured by a simple count of self-reported chronic diseases from a list of 14. Five lifestyle factors (LFs) were evaluated: 1) smoking habit, 2) alcohol consumption, 3) fruit and vegetable consumption, 4) physical activity, and 5) body mass index (BMI). Each LF was given a score of 1 (unhealthy) if recommended behavioural targets were not achieved and 0 otherwise. The combined effect of unhealthy LFs (ULFs) was evaluated using the total sum of scores. Results: A total of 1,196 subjects were analyzed. Mean number of ULFs was 2.6 ± 1.1 SD. When ULFs were considered separately, there was an increased likelihood of multimorbidity with low or high BMI [Odd ratio (95% Confidence Interval): men, 1.96 (1.11-3.46); women, 2.57 (1.65-4.00)], and present or past smoker [men, 3.16 (1.74-5.73)]. When combined, in men, 4-5 ULFs increased the likelihood of multimorbidity [5.23 (1.70-16.1)]; in women, starting from a threshold of 2 ULFs [1.95 (1.05-3.62)], accumulating more ULFs progressively increased the likelihood of multimorbidity. Conclusions: The present study provides support to the association of lifestyle factors and multimorbidity

    Is a soft tissue graft harvested from the maxillary tuberosity the approach of choice in an isolated site?

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    Soft tissue augmentation procedures are becoming more popular these days. Different soft tissue graft harvesting approaches have been proposed. Nonetheless, the location of the donor site (whether anterior-, lateral-, superficial-, deep-palate or the maxillary tuberosity) can affect the graft shape and its composition. Soft tissue grafts from the maxillary tuberosity are rich in connective tissue fibers, with minimal presence of fatty or glandular components. Clinical, histological, and molecular evidence shows that a soft tissue graft obtained from the maxillary tuberosity has unique properties. In addition, harvesting from this area presents minimal risk for intra- or postoperative complications, leading to reduced patient morbidity. The aim of this commentary is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of harvesting a soft tissue graft from the tuberosity and to compare it with the traditional palatal graft, while highlighting functional, esthetic, and patient-related outcomes.Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/151301/1/jper10300_am.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/151301/2/jper10300.pd

    What makes primary care effective for people in poverty living with multiple chronic conditions?: study protocol

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    Abstract Background: The inverse care law persists: people living in poverty have the greatest needs and face considerable challenges in getting the care they need. Evidence reveals that GPs encounter difficulties in delivering care to poor patients, while many of those patients feel stigmatized by healthcare professionals. Patients living in poverty report negative healthcare experiences and unmet healthcare needs. Indeed, there is a growing recognition in primary care research of the importance of addressing the capabilities and social conditions of the poor when delivering care. Few studies have looked at the factors contributing to effective and &quot;socially responsive&quot; care for people living in poverty. Methods/Design: Our study adopts a qualitative ethnographic approach in four healthcare organizations in deprived areas of metropolitan Montreal (Québec, Canada), using patient shadowing techniques and interviews. Data will be collected through fieldwork observations and informal interviews with patients before and after consultations. We will observe medical consultations, care organization activities, and waiting areas and reception of patients. We will conduct a total of 36 individual interviews with 12 GPs and 24 patients. The interviews will be audio-recorded and transcribed for purposes of analysis. The analysis consists of debriefing sessions, coding and interpretive analysis. Discussion: This study aims to investigate how positive healthcare interactions between physicians and patients can improve the management of chronic conditions. We hypothesize that factors related to care organization, to healthcare professionals&apos; experience and to patients may enhance the quality of healthcare interactions, which may have positive impacts for preventing and managing chronic conditions. Our study will provide a unique set of data grounded in the perspectives of healthcare professionals and of patients living in poverty

    The effects of the combination of mesenchymal stromal cells and nanofiber-hydrogel composite on repair of the contused spinal cord

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    A bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplant and a bioengineered nanofiber-hydrogel composite (NHC) have been shown to stimulate nervous tissue repair in the contused spinal cord in rodent models. Here, these two modalities were combined to assess their repair effects in the contused spinal cord in adult rats. Cohorts of contused rats were treated with MSC in NHC (MSC-NHC), MSC in phosphate-buffered saline (MSC-PBS), NHC, or PBS injected into the contusion site at 3 days post-injury. One week after injury, there were significantly fewer CD68+ cells in the contusion with MSC-NHC and NHC, but not MSC-PBS. The reduction in CD86+ cells in the injury site with MSC-NHC was mainly attributed to NHC. One and eight weeks after injury, we found a greater CD206+/CD86+ cell ratio with MSC-NHC or NHC, but not MSC-PBS, indicating a shift from a pro-inflammatory towards an anti-inflammatory milieu in the injury site. Eight weeks after injury, the injury size was significantly reduced with MSC-NHC, NHC, and MSC-PBS. At this time, astrocyte, and axon presence in the injury site was greater with MSC-NHC compared with MSC-PBS. We did not find a significant effect of NHC on MSC transplant survival, and hind limb function was similar across all groups. However, we did find fewer macrophages at 1 week post-injury, more macrophages polarized towards a pro-regenerative phenotype at 1 and 8 weeks after injury, and reduced injury volume, more astrocytes, and more axons at 8 weeks after injury in rats with MSC-NHC and NHC alone compared with MSC-PBS; these findings were especially significant between rats with MSC-NHC and MSC-PBS. The data support further study in the use of an NHC-MSC combination transplant in the contused spinal cord