1,180 research outputs found

    The α1D-adrenergic receptor is expressed intracellularly and coupled to increases in intracellular calcium and reactive oxygen species in human aortic smooth muscle cells

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    Background: The cellular localization of the α1D-adrenergic receptor (α1D-AR) is controversial. Studies in heterologous cell systems have shown that this receptor is expressed in intracellular compartments. Other studies show that dimerization with other ARs promotes the cell surface expression of the α1D-AR. To assess the cellular localization in vascular smooth muscle cells, we developed an adenoviral vector for the efficient expression of a GFP labeled α1D-AR. We also measured cellular localization with immunocytochemistry. Intracellular calcium levels, measurement of reactive oxygen species and contraction of the rat aorta were used as measures of functional activity. Results: The adenovirally expressed α1D-AR was expressed in intracellular compartments in human aortic smooth muscle cells. The intracellular localization of the α1D-AR was also demonstrated with immunocytochemistry using an α1D-AR specific antibody. RT-PCR analysis detected mRNA transcripts corresponding to the α1A-α1B- and α1D-ARs in these aortic smooth muscle cells. Therefore, the presence of the other α1-ARs, and the potential for dimerization with these receptors, does not alter the intracellular expression of the α1D-AR. Despite the predominant intracellular localization in vascular smooth muscle cells, the α1D-AR remained signaling competent and mediated the phenylephrine-induced increases in intracellular calcium. The α1D-AR also was coupled to the generation of reactive oxygen species in smooth muscle cells. There is evidence from heterologous systems that the α1D-AR heterodimerizes with the β2-AR and that desensitization of the β2-AR results in α1D-AR desensitization. In the rat aorta, desensitization of the β2-AR had no effect on contractile responses mediated by the α1D-AR. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the dimerization of the α1D-AR with other ARs does not alter the cellular expression or functional response characteristics of the α1D-AR

    The α\u3csub\u3e1D\u3c/sub\u3e-Adrenergic Receptor Is Expressed Intracellularly and Coupled to Increases in Intracellular Calcium and Reactive Oxygen Species in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells

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    Background: The cellular localization of the α1D-adrenergic receptor (α1D-AR) is controversial. Studies in heterologous cell systems have shown that this receptor is expressed in intracellular compartments. Other studies show that dimerization with other ARs promotes the cell surface expression of the α1D-AR. To assess the cellular localization in vascular smooth muscle cells, we developed an adenoviral vector for the efficient expression of a GFP labeled α1D-AR. We also measured cellular localization with immunocytochemistry. Intracellular calcium levels, measurement of reactive oxygen species and contraction of the rat aorta were used as measures of functional activity. Results: The adenovirally expressed α1D-AR was expressed in intracellular compartments in human aortic smooth muscle cells. The intracellular localization of the α1D-AR was also demonstrated with immunocytochemistry using an α1D-AR specific antibody. RT-PCR analysis detected mRNA transcripts corresponding to the α1A-α1B- and α1D-ARs in these aortic smooth muscle cells. Therefore, the presence of the other α1-ARs, and the potential for dimerization with these receptors, does not alter the intracellular expression of the α1D-AR. Despite the predominant intracellular localization in vascular smooth muscle cells, the α1D-AR remained signaling competent and mediated the phenylephrine-induced increases in intracellular calcium. The α1D-AR also was coupled to the generation of reactive oxygen species in smooth muscle cells. There is evidence from heterologous systems that the α1D-AR heterodimerizes with the β2-AR and that desensitization of the β2-AR results in α1D-AR desensitization. In the rat aorta, desensitization of the β2-AR had no effect on contractile responses mediated by the α1D-AR. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the dimerization of the α1D-AR with other ARs does not alter the cellular expression or functional response characteristics of the α1D-AR

    Beltline: A History of the Atlanta Beltline and its Associated Historic Resources

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    Prepared by the Spring 2006 Preservation Planning Class. This project, developed in a collaborative effort by the Atlanta Urban Design commission and GSU students, was designed to highlight the history of the proposed redevelopment nodes along the Beltline, which is an outer band railroad line encircling the city. The purpose was to identify the significance of the resources therein and their links to Atlanta’s history, providing assistance in the overall development process of the Beltline project.https://scholarworks.gsu.edu/history_heritagepreservation/1003/thumbnail.jp

    Competency-based evaluation tools for integrative medicine training in family medicine residency: a pilot study

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    BACKGROUND: As more integrative medicine educational content is integrated into conventional family medicine teaching, the need for effective evaluation strategies grows. Through the Integrative Family Medicine program, a six site pilot program of a four year residency training model combining integrative medicine and family medicine training, we have developed and tested a set of competency-based evaluation tools to assess residents' skills in integrative medicine history-taking and treatment planning. This paper presents the results from the implementation of direct observation and treatment plan evaluation tools, as well as the results of two Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) developed for the program. METHODS: The direct observation (DO) and treatment plan (TP) evaluation tools developed for the IFM program were implemented by faculty at each of the six sites during the PGY-4 year (n = 11 on DO and n = 8 on TP). The OSCE I was implemented first in 2005 (n = 6), revised and then implemented with a second class of IFM participants in 2006 (n = 7). OSCE II was implemented in fall 2005 with only one class of IFM participants (n = 6). Data from the initial implementation of these tools are described using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Results from the implementation of these tools at the IFM sites suggest that we need more emphasis in our curriculum on incorporating spirituality into history-taking and treatment planning, and more training for IFM residents on effective assessment of readiness for change and strategies for delivering integrative medicine treatment recommendations. Focusing our OSCE assessment more narrowly on integrative medicine history-taking skills was much more effective in delineating strengths and weaknesses in our residents' performance than using the OSCE for both integrative and more basic communication competencies. CONCLUSION: As these tools are refined further they will be of value both in improving our teaching in the IFM program and as competency-based evaluation resources for the expanding number of family medicine residency programs incorporating integrative medicine into their curriculum. The next stages of work on these instruments will involve establishing inter-rater reliability and defining more clearly the specific behaviors which we believe establish competency in the integrative medicine skills defined for the program

    Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical cavity surface emitting lasers”,

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    Abstract-This paper discusses the issues involving the design and fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's). A review of the basic experimental structures is given, with emphasis on recent developments in distributed Bragg reflectors, gain media, as well as current and optical confinement techniques. The paper describes present VCSEL performance, in particular, those involving selective oxidation and visible wavelength operation

    Use of an electronic patient-reported outcome measure in the management of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease:the RePROM pilot trial protocol

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    INTRODUCTION Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects up to 16% of adults in the UK. Patient quality of life is particularly reduced in end-stage renal disease and is strongly associated with increased hospitalisation and mortality. Thus, accurate and responsive healthcare is a key priority. Electronic patient-reported outcome measures (ePROMs) are online questionnaires which ask patients to self-rate their health status. Evidence in oncology suggests that the use of ePROM data within routine care, alongside clinical information, may enhance symptom management and improve patient outcomes. However, National Health Service (NHS)-based ePROM research in CKD is lacking. This pilot trial will assess the feasibility of undertaking a full-scale randomised controlled trial (RCT) in patients with CKD within the NHS. METHODS AND ANALYSIS The renal ePROM pilot trial is an investigator-led single-centre, open-label, two-arm randomised controlled pilot trial of 66 participants ≥18 years with advanced CKD. Participants will be randomised to receive either usual care or usual care supplemented with an ePROM intervention. Participants within the intervention arm will be asked to submit monthly self-reports of their health status using the ePROM system. The system will provide tailored information to patients in response to each report and notify the clinical team of patient deterioration. The renal clinical team will monitor for ePROM notifications and will respond with appropriate action, in line with standard clinical practice. Measures of study feasibility, participant quality of life and CKD severity will be completed at 3 monthly intervals. Health economic outcomes will be assessed. Clinicians will record treatment decision-making. Acceptability and feasibility of the protocol will be assessed alongside outcome measure and intervention compliance rates. Qualitative process evaluation will be conducted. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION The findings will inform the design of a full-scale RCT and the results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. The study has ethical approval. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS ISRCTN12669006; Pre-results
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