1,282 research outputs found

    Indoleamine 2 3-dioxygenase knockout limits angiotensin II-induced aneurysm in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice fed with high fat diet.

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    AIMS: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an age-associated disease characterized by chronic inflammation, vascular cell apoptosis and metalloproteinase-mediated extracellular matrix degradation. Despite considerable progress in identifying targets involved in these processes, therapeutic approaches aiming to reduce aneurysm growth and rupture are still scarce. Indoleamine 2-3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme involved in the conversion of tryptophan (Trp) into kynurenine (Kyn) pathway. In this study, we investigated the role of IDO in two different models of AAA in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice with deficiencies in both low density receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/-) and IDO (Ldlr-/-Ido1-/-) were generated by cross-breeding Ido1-/- mice with Ldlr-/-mice. To induce aneurysm, these mice were infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) (1000 ng/min/kg) and fed with high fat diet (HFD) during 28 days. AAAs were present in almost all Ldlr-/- infused with AngII, but only in 50% of Ldlr-/-Ido1-/- mice. Immunohistochemistry at an early time point (day 7) revealed no changes in macrophage and T lymphocyte infiltration within the vessel wall, but showed reduced apoptosis, as assessed by TUNEL assay, and increased α-actin staining within the media of Ldlr-/-Ido1-/- mice, suggesting enhanced survival of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the absence of IDO. In another model of elastase-induced AAA in C57Bl/6 mice, IDO deficiency had no effect on aneurysm formation. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the knockout of IDO prevented VSMC apoptosis in AngII -treated Ldlr-/- mice fed with HFD, suggesting a detrimental role of IDO in AAA formation and thus would be an important target for the treatment of aneurysm

    Genetic deficiency of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase promotes gut microbiota-mediated metabolic health.

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    The association between altered gut microbiota, intestinal permeability, inflammation and cardiometabolic diseases is becoming increasingly clear but remains poorly understood1,2. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is an enzyme induced in many types of immune cells, including macrophages in response to inflammatory stimuli, and catalyzes the degradation of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity is better known for its suppression of effector T cell immunity and its activation of regulatory T cells3,4. However, high indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity predicts worse cardiovascular outcome5-9 and may promote atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation6, suggesting a more complex role in chronic inflammatory settings. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity is also increased in obesity10-13, yet its role in metabolic disease is still unexplored. Here, we show that obesity is associated with an increase of intestinal indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity, which shifts tryptophan metabolism from indole derivative and interleukin-22 production toward kynurenine production. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase deletion or inhibition improves insulin sensitivity, preserves the gut mucosal barrier, decreases endotoxemia and chronic inflammation, and regulates lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissues. These beneficial effects are due to rewiring of tryptophan metabolism toward a microbiota-dependent production of interleukin-22 and are abrogated after treatment with a neutralizing anti-interleukin-22 antibody. In summary, we identify an unexpected function of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in the fine tuning of intestinal tryptophan metabolism with major consequences on microbiota-dependent control of metabolic disease, which suggests indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase as a potential therapeutic target

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function ðð¥with constraintsð ð 𥠥 ðandð´ð¥ = ð. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis

    Search for supersymmetry in events with one lepton and multiple jets in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV