31 research outputs found

    Single motherhood and multigenerational coresidence in Europe

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    Published online: 13 February 2023Single motherhood has increased throughout Europe. Single mothers assume the dual role of provider and caregiver and often need external support from public policies or kin to meet their needs. Research has focused primarily on public policies, disregarding the role of kin support—and of multigenerational coresidence in particular. This study provides the first detailed description of single mothers’ multigenerational coresidence in Europe. To do so, we combine census and survey microdata from 31 European countries. The data reveal large geographic variation in single mothers’ coresidence. Whereas coresidence is a rare and temporary living arrangement in Northern and Western Europe, it is common and more permanent in Southern, Central, and especially Eastern Europe. At the same time, coresidence has declined in almost all countries with data from the past half-century. These findings suggest large and persistent variation in kin support for single mothers and thus question the assumption of its marginal role in Europe

    The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for fertility and birth outcomes : evidence from Spanish birth registers

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    Published online: 16 February 2023We examine the joint consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for fertility and birth outcomes by drawing on full population administrative data from Spain. We find a surprising improvement in birth outcomes in November and to a less extent in December 2020 (eight to nine months after the first wave of the pandemic) compared with monthly trends in the 10 previous years (2010–2019). The improvement in birth outcomes was shortly followed by a decline in fertility, which concentrated on first births, births to women without a tertiary degree, and births to young and old mothers, respectively. These findings are consistent with the idea that the pandemic selectively affected conception, which showed up first as an improvement in birth outcomes due to the missing conceptions of frail-children-to-be (preterm and low birth weight) and then as a lowered fertility rate due to the missing conception of at-term children

    Double disadvantage in a Nordic Welfare State : a demographic analysis of the single-parent employment gap in Finland, 1987–2018

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    Published online: 21 February 2023This study demonstrates how an evolving negative educational gradient of single parenthood can interact with changing labour market conditions to shape labour market inequalities between partnered and single parents. We analysed trends in employment rates among Finnish partnered and single mothers and fathers from 1987 to 2018. In the late 1980s’ Finland, single mothers’ employment was internationally high and on par with that of partnered mothers, and single fathers’ employment rate was just below that of partnered fathers. The gaps between single and partnered parents emerged and increased during the 1990s recession, and after the 2008 economic crisis, it widened further. In 2018, the employment rates of single parents were 11–12 percentage points lower than those of partnered parents. We ask how much of this single-parent employment gap could be explained by compositional factors, and the widening educational gradient of single parenthood in particular. We use Chevan and Sutherland’s decomposition technique on register data, which allows us to decompose the single-parent employment gap into the composition and rate effects by each category of the background variables. The findings point to an increasing double disadvantage of single parents: the gradually evolving disadvantage in educational backgrounds together with large differences in employment rates between single and partnered parents with low education explain large parts of the widening employment gap. Sociodemographic changes in interaction with changes in the labour market can produce inequalities by family structure in a Nordic society known for its extensive support for combining childcare and employment for all parents.Open access funding provided by European University Institute - Fiesole within the CRUICARE Agreement

    Correlation of PAPP-A values with maternal characteristics, biochemical and ultrasonographic markers of pregnancy

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    WOS:000614328300004Objective: Our aim is to investigate whether there is a correlation of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) values with other variables in pregnancy and maternal characteristics. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the relation between the PAPP-A levels, demographics, biochemical and ultrasonographic markers of the first trimester screening of 11,842 pregnant women seen at a tertiary hospital between November 2002 and November 2008. Results: A significant difference between PAPP-A values of the diabetic and non-diabetic pregnant women were observed (p=0.0005, Mann-Whitney U test). In terms of weight, crown-rump length, Beta-hCG values, significant differences were observed between low and medium level PAPP-A subgroups and between low and high level PAPP-A subgroups. PAPP-A levels were found to differ significantly between the pregnant women of Caucasian origin and other racial origins. Conclusions: Pregnant women with different ethnic and medical backgrounds have different PAPP-A values and other markers of the aneuploidy screening. 'lb make patient specific risk predictions, understanding these interactions and differences is important. Future studies are needed to understand the pathopyhsiology behind these differences

    Le conseguenze del divorzio per il benessere dei figli

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    24 Maggio 2021L’aumento dei tassi di divorzio è stato uno dei fenomeni più visibili fra le dinamiche di cambiamento familiare degli ultimi decenni. Non c’è da meravigliarsi dunque che il divorzio, e l’instabilità familiare più in generale, abbiano attirato ampia attenzione tra gli scienziati sociali, in particolare riguardo le conseguenze per il benessere di adulti e bambini. Vivere questo evento può causare grande stress e sconvolgimento per alcuni, mentre può portare ad un senso di sollievo e opportunità di crescita personale per altri. Negli anni, le ipotesi sull’effetto del divorzio sono state varie. Da un lato, è stato ipotizzato che il divorzio possa avere forti effetti negativi anche a lungo termine sul benessere emotivo e socioeconomico dei bambini; dall’altro lato, che non abbia alcun effetto. Nonostante premesse e conclusioni spesso contrastanti, studi empirici in materia sembrano confermare che gli adulti divorziati ed i loro figli stiano peggio in termini di numerosi indicatori di benessere psicologico, fisico e socioeconomico, rispetto a coloro che non hanno subito il divorzio. Ad esempio, nel breve termine, i bambini che vivono il divorzio dei genitori hanno rendimenti scolastici inferiori e maggiore disagio psicologico rispetto ai bambini che vivono in famiglie intatte. Tuttavia, gli effetti del divorzio sono, in media, limitati

    Associations between maternal socioeconomic, psychosocial and seasonal factors, infant characteristics and human milk cortisol concentrations

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    Published online: 04 January 2021Objectives: Glucocorticoids are one component of human milk (HM) potentially affecting offspring development. Previous studies have identified various maternal, obstetric and socioeconomic characteristics that are associated with HM cortisol concentration but the literature is still scarce concerning these determinants in human populations. We aimed to identify which factors are linked with HM cortisol concentration at 2 months postpartum. Methods: We analyzed data from 340 lactating Finnish mothers using ordinary least squares regression with log-transformed HM cortisol concentration as the dependent variable. Potential predictors included obstetric and maternal factors (maternal age, parity status, delivery mode, gestational age, pre-pregnancy obesity, and smoking in pregnancy), socioeconomic status (education and socioeconomic class), subjective economic well-being, maternal psychosocial factors (postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms), infant sex and age, and HM sample characteristics (time of the day and season of the year at sample collection). Results: The strongest and most robust predictors were season of the year of sample collection and parity status. HM cortisol concentration was significantly higher for primiparas than multiparas. HM samples collected in summer showed significantly higher cortisol concentrations than those collected in winter, spring or autumn. Conclusions: The findings suggest that parity and season of the year at sample collection may be important factors to control for when examining HM cortisol. The strongest and most robust associations were related to maternal and sample characteristics and not to socioeconomic and psychosocial distress. This may be related to the fact that the study was conducted in a low-risk population

    Inequalities in income and education are associated with survival differences after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest : nationwide observational study

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    Published online: 12 November 2021Background: Despite the acknowledged importance of socioeconomic factors as regards cardiovascular disease onset and survival, the relationship between individual-level socioeconomic factors and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is not established. Our aim was to investigate whether socioeconomic variables are associated with 30-day survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods: We linked data from the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation with individual-level data on socioeconomic factors (ie, educational level and disposable income) from Statistics Sweden. Confounding and mediating variables included demographic factors, comorbidity, and Utstein resuscitation variables. Outcome was 30-day survival. Multiple modified Poisson regression was used for the main analyses. Results: A total of 31 373 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occurring in 2010 to 2017 were included. Crude 30-day survival rates by income quintiles were as follows: Q1 (low), 414/6277 (6.6%); Q2, 339/6276 (5.4%); Q3, 423/6275 (6.7%); Q4, 652/6273 (10.4%); and Q5 (high), 928/6272 (14.8%). In adjusted analysis, the chance of survival by income level followed a gradient-like increase, with a risk ratio of 1.86 (95% CI, 1.65–2.09) in the highest-income quintile versus the lowest. This association remained after adjusting for comorbidity, resuscitation factors, and initial rhythm. A higher educational level was associated with improved 30-day survival, with the risk ratio associated with postsecondary education ≥4 years being 1.51 (95% CI, 1.30–1.74). Survival disparities by income and educational level were observed in both men and women. Conclusions: In this nationwide observational study using individual-level socioeconomic data, higher income and higher educational level were associated with better 30-day survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in both sexes

    Family forerunners? : parental separation and partnership formation in 16 countries

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    First published online: 01 May 2020Objective To analyze the relationships between parental separation and partnership formation patterns across 16 countries and over time, and how the relationships are shaped by contextual factors.Background Several studies have found that parental separation predicts higher rates of cohabitation and lower rates of marriage. Few studies have analyzed these relationships over time or across countries, and none have systematically analyzed whether they are moderated by contextual factors.Method Retrospective partnership histories on 138,739 women and men from the Generations and Gender Survey and Harmonized Histories datafiles were used. Monthly data on entry into cohabitation or marriage as the first coresidential union, and on entry into marriage were analyzed using life table and event history techniques. The overall incidences of parental separation and of premarital cohabitation were used as contextual-level measures in the event history analyses.Results The association between parental separation and partnership formation was moderated by the spread of premarital cohabitation. Higher incidence of cohabitation was associated with a weaker positive association between parental separation and cohabitation, and a more negative association between parental separation and marriage. The associations between parental separation and partnership formation were not weaker when parental separation was more common.Conclusion Children of divorce have been among the forerunners of the increase in cohabitation and the retreat from marriage

    Parental divorce in childhood does not independently predict maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy

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    First published online: 07 Septemeber 2020BackgroundThis study sought to investigate if parental divorce in childhood increases the risk for depressive symptoms in pregnancy.MethodsWomen were recruited during their ultrasound screening in gestational week (gwk) 12. The final study sample consisted of 2,899 pregnant women. Questionnaires (including the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were completed at three measurement points (gwk 14, 24 and 34). Prenatal depressive symptoms were defined as Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score >= 13. Parental divorce and other stressful life events in childhood were assessed at gwk 14. Parental divorce was defined as separation of parents who were married or cohabiting. Questionnaire data was supplemented with data from Statistics Finland and the Finnish Medical Birth Register.ResultsParental divorce in childhood increased the risk for depressive symptoms during pregnancy (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.02-2.13), but the connection was no longer significant after adjusting for socioeconomic status, family conflicts and witnessing domestic violence in the childhood family (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.54-1.18).ConclusionsParental divorce alone does not predict depressive symptoms during pregnancy

    Residential context and COVID-19 mortality among adults aged 70 years and older in Stockholm : a population-based, observational study using individual-level data

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    Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0). This is a new study led by Stockholm University in collaboration with academics from Linköping University, the European University Institute, the Institute for Futures Studies and the Karolinska Institutet.Published online on October 27, 2020Housing characteristics and neighbourhood context are considered risk factors for COVID-19 mortality among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate how individual-level housing and neighbourhood characteristics are associated with COVID-19 mortality in older adults. Elderly people in Stockholm who live with a person of working age have a higher risk of COVID-19-death. 60 per cent higher: this is how much higher the risk of dying from COVID-19 is for individuals aged 70 and older in Stockholm County who live in the same household as a person of working age compared with the elderly who live with other old-aged individuals. Crowded living conditions are not a risk factor in themselves for the elderly
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