314 research outputs found

    Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil: Current Status and Future Prospects

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    The continued demand for edible oils by the ever increasing population makes it pertinent to explore new sources. In this direction, two new edible oils namely palm oil and rice bran oil have been subjected to nutritional and toxicological evaluations of their chemicals constituents. An attempt has been made in this article to assess the acceptability of the two oils based on the various investigations that have been carried out so far

    One-transit paths and steady-state of a non-equilibrium process in a discrete-time update

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    We have shown that the partition function of the Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process with open boundaries in a sublattice-parallel updating scheme is equal to that of a two-dimensional one-transit walk model defined on a diagonally rotated square lattice. It has been also shown that the physical quantities defined in these systems are related through a similarity transformation.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figure

    Tripartite symbiosis of Lentil (Lense culinaris L.), Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum brasilense under Rainfed Condition

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    A field experiment was conducted aiming to determine the possibility of improving the lentil performance when co-inoculated with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) fungi and Azospirillum under natural rain-fed conditions, in Iran. Results showed the substantial impact of VAM fungi on grain protein, root colonization and shoot dry weight. Highest value for shoot dry weight recorded in plants which inoculated with G. intraradices and highest values for root colonization and grain protein content was observed in plants which inoculated with G. mosseae. Also, Azospirillum had a significant effect on shoot dry weight and root colonization. A significant differences on grain protein content observed when combination of both microorganisms have been used

    Analysis of Microwave Heating Process for Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions

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    In this investigation, the process of microwave heating technology was evaluated to measure the effect of some important parameters such as dielectric properties (╬ş and ╔Ť╩║), rate of temperature increase (dT/dt), volume rate of heat generation (Qmw), wavelength (╬╗) and penetration depth (Dp) during the microwave irradiation on crude oil emulsions. Two types of Malaysian crude oil mixed together at a volume ratio of 50-50% and applied for further investigations. In order to ensure the efficiency of the process, the improvement of existing techniques and the development of new technology different ratios of water and oil were utilized to prepare the emulsions of water-in-crude oil (W/O). The emulsion samples were heated under 360 watt and 540 watt for 3 to 5 minutes. The findings of the microwave heating demulsification showed that higher microwave power (540 watt) along with the radiation time (5 min) were not much effective for water separation. This is because of the over boiling of the samples. Consequently, for microwave heating demulsification the best water separation efficiency was achieved at 3 (minutes), 360 (watt). Based on the result of microwave parameterÔÇÖs calculations, it was found that parameters such as; dT/dt, Qmw, ╬ş and ╔Ť╩║, were inversely proportional to the radiation time. However, parameters such as ╬╗ and Dp were directly proportional to the time of the radiation

    Cytogenetic diagnosis of Roberts SC phocomelia syndrome: First report from Kashmir

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    There are several syndromes in which specific mitotic chromosomal abnormalities can be seen, like premature centromere separation, premature (sister) chromatid separation, and somatic aneuploidies. Identifications of such specific cytogenetic findings can be the key factor that leads towards the diagnosis of syndromes like Roberts SC phocomelia. The case presented here as Roberts SC phocomelia syndrome was identified as a child with multiple congenital anomalies and dysmorphic features. Conventional cytogenetic analysis of the case revealed premature sister chromatid separation. The premature centromeric separation was also confirmed by C banding analysis of the child. It is the first and the only case of Roberts SC phocomelia diagnosed from this part of the world. The present case report emphasizes the importance of conventional cytogenetics in the diagnosis of such syndromes

    An overview of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel

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    As hydrogen fuel cell vehicles move from manifestation to commercialization, the users expec t safe, convenient and customer-friendly fuelling. Hydrogen quality affects fuel cell stack performance and life time, as well as other factors such as valve operation. In this paper, previous researcherÔÇÖs development on hydrogen as a possible major fuel of the future has been studied thoroughly .Hydrogen is one of the energy carriers which can replace fossil fuel and can be used as fuel in an internal combustion engines and as a fuel cell in vehicles. To use hydrogen as a fuel of internal combustion engine, engine design should be considered for avoiding abnormal combustion. As a result it can improve engine efficiency, power output and reduce NOx emissions. The emission of fuel cell is low as compared to conventional vehicles but as penalty, fuel cell vehicles need additional space and weight to install the battery and storage tank, thus increases it production cost. The production of hydrogen can be ÔÇścarbon-freeÔÇÖ only if it is generated by employing genuinely carbon-free renewable energy sources. The acceptability of hydrogen technology depends on the knowledge and awareness of the hydrogen benefits towards environment and human life. Recent study shows that people still do not have the sufficient information of hydrogen

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis 6-kDa Early Secreted Antigenic Target (ESAT-6) protein downregulates Lipopolysaccharide induced c-myc expression by modulating the Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinases 1/2

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p><it>Mycobacterium tuberculosis </it>(Mtb) causes death of 2ÔÇô3 million people every year. The persistence of the pathogenic mycobacteria inside the macrophage occurs through modulation of host cell signaling which allows them, unlike the other non-pathogenic species, to survive inside the host. The secretory proteins of <it>M. tuberculosis </it>have gained attention in recent years both as vaccine candidates and diagnostic tools; they target the immune system and trigger a putatively protective response; however, they may also be involved in the clinical symptoms of the disease.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Our studies showed that RD-1-encoded secretory protein ESAT-6 is involved in modulation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-signaling pathway inside the macrophage. ESAT-6 induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus, which normally is the case for MAP kinases. ESAT-6 also antagonized LPS-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the nucleus. Stimulation of cells by ESAT-6 along with sodium orthovanadate (a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) restored phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the nucleus, suggesting active dephosphorylation of ERK1/2 by some putative phosphatase(s) in the nucleus. Further, ESAT-6 was found to down regulate the expression of LPS-inducible gene <it>c-myc </it>in an ERK1/2-dependent manner.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>This study showed the effect of secretory proteins of <it>M. tuberculosis </it>in the modulation of macrophage signaling pathways particularly ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway. This modulation appears to be achieved by limiting the ERK1/2 activation in the nucleus which ultimately affects the macrophage gene expression. This could be a mechanism by which secretory proteins of Mtb might modulate gene expression inside the macrophages.</p

    Correlation between length of tibia and dimensions of distal articular surfaces: a morphometric study

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    Background: Estimation of stature can be done from long bones especially tibia and femur as they have a correlation with height. Tibia is most commonly used as it resists erosion and keeps its anatomical shape even after burial. However intact bones are rarely available. Most often the exhumed remains are in fragmentary condition leading to lack of adequate sample for the study. A way of increasing utility of such samples would be the establishment of techniques which would permit estimation of stature from long bone fragments. The current study provides a correlation between length of tibia and its distal dimensions which can be used in anthropology for measuring the stature of an individual. Methods: A total of 50 tibiae were obtained from the bone bank of the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Srinagar. Measurements were taken from the bone using vernier calipers. Morphometric data obtained was analyzed, measurements expressed in mean and standard deviation and PearsonÔÇÖs correlation test was carried out. This observational study was conducted within a period of 2 months, from April-June 2022. Results: Width of talar facet with a PearsonÔÇÖs correlation of 0.62 and width of fibular notch with a correlation of 0.3 showed positive statistical significance (p&lt;0.05). On the other hand, breadth of medial malleolus with a correlation of 0.18 and height of fibular notch with a correlation of -0.02 (p&gt;0.05) was statistically insignificant. Conclusions: The study showed a positive correlation (p&lt;0.05) between length of tibia with the width of talar facet and fibular notch

    Do hands-free cell phone conversation while driving increase the risk of cognitive distraction among drivers? A cross-over quasi-experimental study

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    Background: Background: Conversation over the cell phone while driving is a known risk factor for road traffic crash. Using handsfree to talk on the cell phone may remove visual and manual distraction yet not the cognitive distraction. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to better understand the mechanisms of cognitive distraction due to hands-free cell phone conversation (HFPC) while driving. Methods: Twelve male and 12 female University students in Tehran, Iran, were selected via the consecutive convenient sampling method, and randomly assigned to one of the following administrations of cross-over quasi-experimental study design, during year 2016: Administration 1, participants performed the tests while involved in HFPC, took rest for 60 minute, and then performed the tests another time without HFPC; Administration 2, participants performed the tests without HFPC, took rest, and then performed the tests another time with HFPC. Each participant moved to the other administration after 7 to 10 days. The Vienna test system (VTS) was used to measure simple and choice reaction time, selective attention, visual orientation, and visual memory. Linear regression analysis was used to study the change in test scores due to HFPC. Results: The mean age of participants was 27.1├é┬▒5.3 years. A history of road traffic crash (regardless of severity) was reported among 9 (37.5) participants in the previous year. Hands-free cell phone conversation while driving was directly associated with mean time correct rejection score (P < 0.01) (selective attention), omitted response (P < 0.01) and median reaction time (P < 0.01) (choice reaction time), and mean reaction time (P < 0.01) (Simple reaction time). Moreover, HPFC was inversely associated with sum hits (P = 0.05) (selective attention), incorrect (P < 0.02) and correct response (P < 0.01) (choice reaction time), score based on viewing and working time (P < 0. 01) (visual orientation), and visual memory performance (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Using hands-free devices to converse during driving, impaired reaction time, selective attention, visual orientation and visual memory, which are essential for safe driving. Thus, the use of these devices does not preclude cognitive distraction and should be restricted. ├é┬ę 2018, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal

    Frozen shuffle update for an asymmetric exclusion process on a ring

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    We introduce a new rule of motion for a totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) representing pedestrian traffic on a lattice. Its characteristic feature is that the positions of the pedestrians, modeled as hard-core particles, are updated in a fixed predefined order, determined by a phase attached to each of them. We investigate this model analytically and by Monte Carlo simulation on a one-dimensional lattice with periodic boundary conditions. At a critical value of the particle density a transition occurs from a phase with `free flow' to one with `jammed flow'. We are able to analytically predict the current-density diagram for the infinite system and to find the scaling function that describes the finite size rounding at the transition point.Comment: 16 page
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