30,587 research outputs found

    Exact Nonperturbative Unitary Amplitudes for 1->N Transitions

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    I present an extension to arbitrary N of a previously proposed field theoretic model, in which unitary amplitudes for 1>81->8 processes were obtained. The Born amplitude in this extension has the behavior A(1>N)tree = gN1 N!A(1->N)^{tree}\ =\ g^{N-1}\ N! expected in a bosonic field theory. Unitarity is violated when A(1>N)>1|A(1->N)|>1, or when N>Ncrite/g.N>\N_crit\simeq e/g. Numerical solutions of the coupled Schr\"odinger equations shows that for weak coupling and a large range of N>\ncrit, the exact unitary amplitude is reasonably fit by a factorized expression |A(1->N)| \sim (0.73 /N) \cdot \exp{(-0.025/\g2)}. The very small size of the coefficient 1/\g2 , indicative of a very weak exponential suppression, is not in accord with standard discussions based on saddle point analysis, which give a coefficient 1. \sim 1.\ The weak dependence on NN could have experimental implications in theories where the exponential suppression is weak (as in this model). Non-perturbative contributions to few-point correlation functions in this theory would arise at order $K\ \simeq\ \left((0.05/\g2)+ 2\ ln{N}\right)/ \ ln{(1/\g2)}inanexpansioninpowersof in an expansion in powers of \g2.$Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures (not included

    Prediction of physical workload in reduced gravity environments

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    The background, development, and application of a methodology to predict human energy expenditure and physical workload in low gravity environments, such as a Lunar or Martian base, is described. Based on a validated model to predict energy expenditures in Earth-based industrial jobs, the model relies on an elemental analysis of the proposed job. Because the job itself need not physically exist, many alternative job designs may be compared in their physical workload. The feasibility of using the model for prediction of low gravity work was evaluated by lowering body and load weights, while maintaining basal energy expenditure. Comparison of model results was made both with simulated low gravity energy expenditure studies and with reported Apollo 14 Lunar EVA expenditure. Prediction accuracy was very good for walking and for cart pulling on slopes less than 15 deg, but the model underpredicted the most difficult work conditions. This model was applied to example core sampling and facility construction jobs, as presently conceptualized for a Lunar or Martian base. Resultant energy expenditures and suggested work-rest cycles were well within the range of moderate work difficulty. Future model development requirements were also discussed

    A forward view on reliable computers for flight control

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    The requirements for fault-tolerant computers for flight control of commercial aircraft are examined; it is concluded that the reliability requirements far exceed those typically quoted for space missions. Examination of circuit technology and alternative computer architectures indicates that the desired reliability can be achieved with several different computer structures, though there are obvious advantages to those that are more economic, more reliable, and, very importantly, more certifiable as to fault tolerance. Progress in this field is expected to bring about better computer systems that are more rigorously designed and analyzed even though computational requirements are expected to increase significantly

    A modeling analysis program for the JPL Table Mountain Io sodium cloud data

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    Progress and achievements in the second year are discussed in three main areas: (1) data quality review of the 1981 Region B/C images; (2) data processing activities; and (3) modeling activities. The data quality review revealed that almost all 1981 Region B/C images are of sufficient quality to be valuable in the analyses of the JPL data set. In the second area, the major milestone reached was the successful development and application of complex image-processing software required to render the original image data suitable for modeling analysis studies. In the third area, the lifetime description of sodium atoms in the planet magnetosphere was improved in the model to include the offset dipole nature of the magnetic field as well as an east-west electric field. These improvements are important in properly representing the basic morphology as well as the east-west asymmetries of the sodium cloud

    A modeling analysis program for the JPL table mountain Io sodium cloud

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    Progress and achievements in the first year are discussed in three main areas: (1) review and assessment of the massive JPL Table Mountain Io sodium cloud data set, (2) formulation and execution of a plan to perform further processing of this data set, and (3) initiation of modeling activities. The complete 1976-79 and 1981 data sets are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the superior 1981 Region B/C images which provide a rich base of information for studying the structure and escape of gases from Io as well as possible east-west and magnetic longitudinal asymmetries in the plasma torus. A data processing plan is developed and is undertaken by the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory of JPL for the purpose of providing a more refined and complete data set for our modeling studies in the second year. Modeling priorities are formulated and initial progress in achieving these goals is reported

    The Complexity of the Homotopy Method, Equilibrium Selection, and Lemke-Howson Solutions

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    We show that the widely used homotopy method for solving fixpoint problems, as well as the Harsanyi-Selten equilibrium selection process for games, are PSPACE-complete to implement. Extending our result for the Harsanyi-Selten process, we show that several other homotopy-based algorithms for finding equilibria of games are also PSPACE-complete to implement. A further application of our techniques yields the result that it is PSPACE-complete to compute any of the equilibria that could be found via the classical Lemke-Howson algorithm, a complexity-theoretic strengthening of the result in [Savani and von Stengel]. These results show that our techniques can be widely applied and suggest that the PSPACE-completeness of implementing homotopy methods is a general principle.Comment: 23 pages, 1 figure; to appear in FOCS 2011 conferenc