40,840 research outputs found

    Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Collisions between Hydrogen and Graphite

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    Hydrogen adsorption by graphite is examined by classical molecular dynamics simulation using a modified Brenner REBO potential. Such interactions are typical in chemical sputtering experiments, and knowledge of the fundamental behavior of hydrogen and graphene in collisional conditions is essential for modeling the sputtering mechanism. The hydrogen adsorption rate is found to be dependent on the incident hydrogen energy and not on graphene temperature. Rather than destroying the graphene, hydrogen incidence at energies of less than 100 eV can be classified into three regimes of adsorption, reflection and penetration through one or more graphene layers. Incidence at the lowest energies is shown to distort the graphene structure.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures. Accepted for publication by j. Plasma Phys. Proccedings for the joint conference of 19th International Conference on Numerical Simulation of Plasmas and 7th Asia Pacific Plasma Theor

    A Canonical Ensemble Approach to the Fermion/Boson Random Point Processes and its Applications

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    We introduce the boson and the fermion point processes from the elementary quantum mechanical point of view. That is, we consider quantum statistical mechanics of canonical ensemble for a fixed number of particles which obey Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac statistics, respectively, in a finite volume. Focusing on the distribution of positions of the particles, we have point processes of the fixed number of points in a bounded domain. By taking the thermodynamic limit such that the particle density converges to a finite value, the boson/fermion processes are obtained. This argument is a realization of the equivalence of ensembles, since resulting processes are considered to describe a grand canonical ensemble of points. Random point processes corresponding to para-particles of order two are discussed as an application of the formulation. A statistics of a system of composite particles at zero temperature are also considered as a model of determinantal random point processes.Comment: 26pages, Some typos are corrected, to be published in Commun. Math. Phy

    Hawaii's Pelagic Fisheries

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    Hawaii's diverse pelagic fisheries supply the bulk of the State's total catch. The largest Hawaii fishery is the recently expanded longline fishery, which now lands about 4,400 metric tons (t) of broadbill swordfish, Xiphias gladius; 1,500 t of bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus, and 3,000 t of other pelagic species annually. The increased catch of these other species has raised concerns regarding the continued availability of yellowfin tuna, T. albacares; blue marlin, Makaira mazara; and mahimahi, Coryphaena hippurus, in the small-vessel troll and handline fisheries which target those species. Analysis of catch per unit effort (CPUE) statistics from Hawaii's fisheries did not provide strong evidence of recent declines in availability related to local fishery expansion. A more influential factor was variation in Pacific-wide CPUE, representing overall population abundance and catchability. Exogenous factors, including Pacific-wide fishing pressure, may overwhelm the influence of local fishing pressure on fish availability

    Efficient Implementations of Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Lennard-Jones Systems

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    Efficient implementations of the classical molecular dynamics (MD) method for Lennard-Jones particle systems are considered. Not only general algorithms but also techniques that are efficient for some specific CPU architectures are also explained. A simple spatial-decomposition-based strategy is adopted for parallelization. By utilizing the developed code, benchmark simulations are performed on a HITACHI SR16000/J2 system consisting of IBM POWER6 processors which are 4.7 GHz at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) and an SGI Altix ICE 8400EX system consisting of Intel Xeon processors which are 2.93 GHz at the Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), the University of Tokyo. The parallelization efficiency of the largest run, consisting of 4.1 billion particles with 8192 MPI processes, is about 73% relative to that of the smallest run with 128 MPI processes at NIFS, and it is about 66% relative to that of the smallest run with 4 MPI processes at ISSP. The factors causing the parallel overhead are investigated. It is found that fluctuations of the execution time of each process degrade the parallel efficiency. These fluctuations may be due to the interference of the operating system, which is known as OS Jitter.Comment: 33 pages, 19 figures, add references and figures are revise

    A numerical algorithm for optimal feedback gains in high dimensional LQR problems

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    A hybrid method for computing the feedback gains in linear quadratic regulator problems is proposed. The method, which combines the use of a Chandrasekhar type system with an iteration of the Newton-Kleinman form with variable acceleration parameter Smith schemes, is formulated so as to efficiently compute directly the feedback gains rather than solutions of an associated Riccati equation. The hybrid method is particularly appropriate when used with large dimensional systems such as those arising in approximating infinite dimensional (distributed parameter) control systems (e.g., those governed by delay-differential and partial differential equations). Computational advantage of the proposed algorithm over the standard eigenvector (Potter, Laub-Schur) based techniques are discussed and numerical evidence of the efficacy of our ideas presented

    Dynamical breakdown of the Ising spin-glass order under a magnetic field

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    The dynamical magnetic properties of an Ising spin glass Fe0.55_{0.55}Mn0.45_{0.45}TiO3_3 are studied under various magnetic fields. Having determined the temperature and static field dependent relaxation time τ(T;H)\tau(T;H) from ac magnetization measurements under a dc bias field by a general method, we first demonstrate that these data provide evidence for a spin-glass (SG) phase transition only in zero field. We next argue that the data τ(T;H)\tau(T;H) of finite HH can be well interpreted by the droplet theory which predicts the absence of a SG phase transition in finite fields.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

    A unified framework for approximation in inverse problems for distributed parameter systems

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    A theoretical framework is presented that can be used to treat approximation techniques for very general classes of parameter estimation problems involving distributed systems that are either first or second order in time. Using the approach developed, one can obtain both convergence and stability (continuous dependence of parameter estimates with respect to the observations) under very weak regularity and compactness assumptions on the set of admissible parameters. This unified theory can be used for many problems found in the recent literature and in many cases offers significant improvements to existing results

    Evolution of non-thermal emission from shell associated with AGN jets

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    We explore the evolution of the emissions by accelerated electrons in shocked shells driven by jets in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Focusing on powerful sources which host luminous quasars, we evaluated the broadband emission spectra by properly taking into account adiabatic and radiative cooling effects on the electron distribution. The synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton (IC) scattering of various photons that are mainly produced in the accretion disc and dusty torus are considered as radiation processes. We show that the resultant radiation is dominated by the IC emission for compact sources (< 10kpc), whereas the synchrotron radiation is more important for larger sources. We also compare the shell emissions with those expected from the lobe under the assumption that a fractions of the energy deposited in the shell and lobe carried by the non-thermal electrons are ϵe0.01\epsilon_e \sim 0.01 and ϵe,lobe1\epsilon_{e, lobe} \sim 1, respectively. Then, we find that the shell emissions are brighter than the lobe ones at infra-red and optical bands when the source size is > 10kpc, and the IC emissions from the shell at > 10 GeV can be observed with the absence of contamination from the lobe irrespective of the source size. In particular, it is predicted that, for most powerful nearby sources (Lj1047ergss1L_j \sim 10^{47} ergs s^{-1}), TeV gamma-rays produced via the IC emissions can be detected by the modern Cherenkov telescopes such as MAGIC, HESS and VERITAS.Comment: 13 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    Instanton Calculus in R-R 3-form Background and Deformed N=2 Super Yang-Mills Theory

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    We study the ADHM construction of instantons in N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory deformed in constant Ramond-Ramond (R-R) 3-form field strength background in type IIB superstrings. We compare the deformed instanton effective action with the effective action of fractional D3/D(-1) branes at the orbifold singularity of C^2/Z_2 in the same R-R background. We find discrepancy between them at the second order in deformation parameters, which comes from the coupling of the translational zero modes of the D(-1)-branes to the R-R background. We improve the deformed action by adding a term with space-time dependent gauge coupling. Although the space-time action differs from the action in the omega-background, both actions lead to the same instanton equations of motion at the lowest order in gauge coupling.Comment: 27 pages, version to appear in JHE
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