1,711 research outputs found

    Radiation Damage to the diamond-based Beam Condition Monitor of the CMS Detector at the LHC

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    In the Beam Condition Monitor at the CMS experiment at the LHC, CVD diamonds are used as detectors. During Run 1 operation of the LHC, significant reduction of signal efficiency due to radiation damage was observed. The decrease was significantly stronger than expected. The so-called polarization effect is responsible for this signal reduction. Electric field deformations due to trapped charge carriers are shown in measurements using the transient current technique and compared with simulations

    Simulation of beam induced lattice defects of diamond detectors using FLUKA

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    Diamond is more and more used as detector material for particle detection. One argument for diamond is its higher radiation hardness compared to silicon. Since various particles have different potential for radiation damage at different energies a scaling rule is necessary for the prediction of radiation damage. For silicon detectors the non-ionising energy loss (NIEL) is used for scaling the effects of different particles. A different way of predicting the radiation damage is based on the Norget-Robinson-Torrens theorem to predict the number of displacements per atom (DPA). This provides a better scaling rule since recombination effects are taken into account. This model is implemented in the FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations package for protons, neutrons and pions. We compare simulation results of NIEL and DPA for diamond and silicon material exposed to protons, neutrons and pions for a wide range of energies

    Description of radiation damage in diamond sensors using an effective defect model

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    The BCML system is a beam monitoring device in the CMS experiment at the LHC. As detectors poly-crystalline diamond sensors are used. Here high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the CCE. However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is so much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the rate of incident particles. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field, which in turn increases the trapping rate and hence reduces the CCE even further. In order to connect these macroscopic measurements with the microscopic defects acting as traps for the ionization charge the TCAD simulation program SILVACO was used. Two effective acceptor and donor levels were needed to fit the data. Using this effective defect model the highly non- linear rate dependent diamond polarization as function of the particle rate environment and the resulting signal loss could be simulated

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an