455 research outputs found

    A Survey on Adaptation Strategies for Mutation and Crossover Rates of Differential Evolution Algorithm

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    Differential Evolution (DE), the well-known optimization algorithm, is a tool under the roof of Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) for solving non-linear and non-differential optimization problems. DE has many qualities in its hand, which are attributing to its popularity. DE also is known for its simplicity in solving the given problem with few control parameters: the population size (NP), the mutation rate (F) and the crossover rate (Cr). To avoid the difficulty involved in setting of suitable values for NP, F and Cr many parameter adaptation strategies are proposed in the literature. This paper is to present the working principle of the parameter adaptation strategies of F and Cr. The adaptation strategies are categorized based on the logic used by the authors, and clear insights about all the categories are presented

    A study of clinicopathological features and outcomes of crescentic glomerulonephritis

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    Background: Crescentic Glomerulonephritis (CrGN) is characterized by rapidly progressive renal failure. Most of the literatures have defined >50% crescents in biopsy as CrGN. Only very few studies have included the presence of 10% crescents on renal biopsy and comparing them splitting our diagnosis into Immune Complex Mediated CrGN (ICCGN) and non-immune complex mediated CrGN (NICCGN) groups.Results: ICCGN was the commonest group. When compared to ICCGN group, NICCGN patients were older, anuric, had more glomerular necrosis and severe IFTA in biopsy at presentation, more became dialysis dependent at index visit discharge. When patients with >50% crescents in both the groups were compared similar results were seen except that infective complications and proliferative lesions were more in ICCGN. When patients with 60%, moderate to severe IFTA are the independent risk factors for dialysis dependency at index visit discharge

    Further Results on (a, d) -total Edge Irregularity Strength of Graphs

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    ليكن  رسمًا بيانيًا بسيطًا على رؤوس l وحواف m مع إجمالي h -  وضع العلامات  . فان   تسمى (ا,د)- وسم غير منتظم للحافة الإجمالية إذا وجد تطابق متقابل وليكن   معرفة بواسطة   لكل   , حيث  . كذلك قيمة  يقال لها وزن الحافة . يشار الى (ا,د)-اجمالي قوة عدم انتظام الحواف للرسم البياني G ب  وهي اقل h التي يقبلها G   للحافة -(ا,د) الغير منتظمة للعلامة-h . في هذه المقالة تم فحص,  لبعض عائلات الرسم البياني الشائعة. بالاضافة الى ذلك تم حل المسالة المفتوحة  بشكل ايجابي. م تسمى ρ (أ ، د) - وسم غير منتظم للحافة الإجمالية إذا كان هناك تطابق واحد لواحد ، قل ψ: E (G) → {a ، a + d ، a + 2d ،… + a + (m- 1) د} محدد بواسطة ψ (uv) = ρ (u) + ρ (v) + ρ (uv) لجميع uv∈E (G) ، حيث a≥3 ، d≥2. أيضًا ، يُقال إن القيمة ψ (uv) هي وزن حافة الأشعة فوق البنفسجية. يشار إلى قوة عدم انتظام الحافة الإجمالية (أ ، د) للرسم البياني G بواسطة (a ، d) -tes (G) وهي أقل h التي يقبلها G (أ ، د) - علامة h غير منتظمة للحافة. في هذه المقالة ، يتم فحص (أ ، د) -tes (G) لبعض عائلات الرسم البياني الشائعة. بالإضافة إلى ذلك ، يتم حل المشكلة المفتوحة (3،2) - tes (K_ (m ، n)) ، m ، n> 2 بشكل إيجابي.Consider a simple graph   on vertices and edges together with a total  labeling . Then ρ is called total edge irregular labeling if there exists a one-to-one correspondence, say  defined by  for all  where  Also, the value  is said to be the edge weight of . The total edge irregularity strength of the graph G is indicated by  and is the least  for which G admits   edge irregular h-labeling.  In this article,   for some common graph families are examined. In addition, an open problem is solved affirmatively

    Effect of organic fortified zinc on growth and yield of green gram (Vigna radiata (L). Wilczek) in typic chromustert

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    Zinc is a crucial micronutrient for crop growth and enzymatic regulations. The present study was formulated to reveal the effect of organic fortified Zn composite on growth and yield parameters of green gram in Typic chromustert at Vellakulam village, Kalligudi block, Madurai district of Tamil Nadu. A total of eight treatments with three replications were designed to grow in Randomized Block Design (RBD). The treatments consisted of recommend dose fertilizers (25:50:25 Kg ha-1 N: P2O5: K2O) + various sources organics applied such as vermicompost (1:5), poultry manure (1:5), biochar (1:5), FYM (1:10) incubated with ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University micronutrient mixture enriched with FYM (1:10) for 30 days. Among the treatments, application of RDF (25:50:25 Kg ha-1 N: P2O5: K2O) + soil application of ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 incubated with 125 kg Vermicompost (1:5) recorded maximum plant height (64 cm), leaf area index (LAI) (3.11), dry matter production (16.33 g plant-1), pods plant-1 (28.46), grains pod-1 (13.5), test weight (3.48 g), seed yield (950 kg ha-1) and haulm yield (1520 kg ha-1) followed by biochar and TNAU MNM shown on par results with each other. The lowest yield parameters were spotted in absolute control. A considerable increase in yield (25 %) was detected when the crop was supplemented with organically fortified Zinc than the commercial ZnSO4. The study concluded that the application of biofortified Zn will deliver higher growth and yield in green gram

    Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer disease in Helicobacter pylori-positive people

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    BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer disease is the cause of dyspepsia in about 10% of people. Ninety-five percent of duodenal and 70% of gastric ulcers are associated with Helicobacter pylori. Eradication of H. pylori reduces the relapse rate of ulcers but the magnitude of this effect is uncertain. This is an update of Ford AC, Delaney B, Forman D, Moayyedi P. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer disease in Helicobacter pylori-positive patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD003840. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003840.pub4. OBJECTIVES: To assess the proportion of peptic ulcers healed and the proportion of participants who remained free from relapse with eradication therapy against placebo or other pharmacological therapies in H. pylori-positive people.To assess the proportion of participants that achieved complete relief of symptoms and improvement in quality of life scores.To compare the incidence of adverse effects/drop-outs (total number for each drug) associated with the different treatments.To assess the proportion of participants in whom successful eradication was achieved. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we identified trials by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to March 2016) and Ovid EMBASE (1980 to March 2016). To identify further relevant trials, we handsearched reference lists from trials selected by electronic searching, and published abstracts from conference proceedings from the United European Gastroenterology Week (published in Gut) and Digestive Disease Week (published in Gastroenterology). The search was last updated in March 2016. We contacted members of Cochrane Upper GI and Pancreatic Diseases, and experts in the field and asked them to provide details of outstanding clinical trials and any relevant unpublished materials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We analysed randomised controlled trials of short- and long-term treatment of peptic ulcer disease in H. pylori-positive adults. Participants received at least one week of H. pylori eradication compared with ulcer healing drug, placebo or no treatment. Trials were included if they reported assessment from two weeks onwards. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We collected data on ulcer healing, recurrence, relief of symptoms and adverse effects. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using both fixed-effect and random-effects models with Review Manager software (RevMan 5.3) based on intention-to-treat analysis as far as possible. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 55 trials were included for one or more outcomes for this review.In duodenal ulcer healing, eradication therapy was superior to ulcer healing drug (UHD) (34 trials, 3910 participants, RR of ulcer persisting = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58 to 0.76; 381/2286 (adjusted proportion: 12.4%) in eradication therapy plus UHD versus 304/1624 (18.7%) in UHD; low quality evidence) and no treatment (two trials, 207 participants, RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.53; 30/125 (adjusted proportion: 21.7%) in eradication therapy versus 48/82 (58.5%) in no treatment; low quality evidence).In gastric ulcer healing, the differences were imprecise between eradication therapy and UHD (15 trials, 1974 participants, RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.68; 220/1192 (adjusted proportion: 16.0%) in eradication therapy plus UHD versus 102/782 (13.0%) in UHD; very low quality evidence). In preventing duodenal ulcer recurrence the differences were imprecise between maintenance therapy with H.pylori eradication therapy and maintenance therapy with UHD (four trials, 319 participants, RR of ulcer recurring 0.73; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.25; 19/159 (adjusted proportion: 11.9%) in eradication therapy versus 26/160 (16.3%) in UHD; very low quality evidence), but eradication therapy was superior to no treatment (27 trials 2509 participants, RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.26; 215/1501 (adjusted proportion: 12.9%) in eradication therapy versus 649/1008 (64.4%) in no treatment; very low quality evidence).In preventing gastric ulcer recurrence, eradication therapy was superior to no treatment (12 trials, 1476 participants, RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.45; 116/697 (adjusted proportion: 16.3%) in eradication therapy versus 356/679 (52.4%) in no treatment; very low quality evidence). None of the trials reported proportion of people with gastric ulcer not healed after initial therapy between H.pylori eradication therapy and no active treatment or the proportion of people with recurrent gastric ulcer or peptic ulcers during maintenance therapy between H.pylori eradication therapy and ulcer healing drug therapy. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Adding a one to two-week course of H. pylori eradication therapy is an effective treatment for people with H. pylori-positive duodenal ulcer when compared to ulcer healing drugs alone and no treatment. H. pylori eradication therapy is also effective in preventing recurrence of duodenal and gastric ulcer compared to no treatment. There is currently no evidence that H. pylori eradication therapy is an effective treatment in people with gastric ulcer or that it is effective in preventing recurrence of duodenal ulcer compared to ulcer healing drug. However, confidence intervals were wide and significant benefits or harms of H. pylori eradication therapy in acute ulcer healing of gastric ulcers compared to no treatment, and in preventing recurrence of duodenal ulcers compared to ulcer healing drugs cannot be ruled out

    Assessing spatial variability of soil and drawing location-specific management zones for coastal saline soils in Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu

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    The production of crops in saline and alkali-degraded areas is difficult due to the heterogeneous and spatial variation of soil fertility.  First, their spatial variability was analyzed and maps of the spatial distribution were created using Geostatistical techniques.  The fuzzy k-mean clustering analysis was then used to define Management zones in the coastal saline soils of Ramanathapuram district in Tamil Nadu.  One hundred and fifty geo-referenced soil samples  (30 cm depth) were taken and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (ECe) in the saturated paste extract (USSL method), organic carbon (OC) (Walkley-Black chromic acid wet oxidation method), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) (Rapid titration method) and available phosphorus and extractable micronutrients (Multinutrients extraction method), revealing significant variation in soil characteristics throughout the coastal saline soils of Ramanathapuram district.  The most significant factors, which together accounted for four principal components and 69% of the overall variability, were pH, electrical conductivity (ECe), calcium Carbonate and available zinc.  According to Geostatistical analysis, the Exponential (pH, OC (organic carbon), P, Fe, Mn and Zn) and Stable (ECe) was the best fit semivariogram ordinary kriging model with weak to moderate spatial dependence.  Fuzzy k-mean clustering was also used to identify zone 1, zone 2 and zone 3.  For every soil property, there was a significant difference between MZ1(zone 1), MZ2(zone 2) and MZ3(zone 3).  These results also showed that cluster analysis gave farmers a chance to use location-specific nutrient management strategies by minimizing variability within the zone. The management zones can decrease agricultural inputs and environmental pollutants while increasing crop productivity.

    Perception of the Indian Working Women considering Equity as an Investment Avenue: An Empirical Study

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    This long-lasting volatility in the stock market since the global financial crisis has been disappointing issue for the retail investors to invest in equity markets. Due to high volatility, new clients are scared to burn their fingers and existing investors are uncomfortable in roiling their portfolios

    Evaluation of the effect of magnesium in combination with organic manures on the growth and yield attributes and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) inTypic Ustropept

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    Cotton is India's most significant commercial crop and has a significant role in the agricultural economics of the nation. A field experiment was conducted in a farmer’s field located in Achchandavilthan village of Srivillipudhur block, Virudhunager District, from 28-Aug 2019 to Jan, 2020 to evaluate the response of cotton to foliar and soil application of magnesium combination with organic manures on the growth and yield attributes and yield of cotton in magnesium deficient soil. The soil was categorized as “Moderately deep clay Typic Ustropept, and medium N, P and high K content, in a randomized block design with fifteen treatments and three replications. The results revealed that the application of MgSO4 at a rate of 50 kg ha-1 along with 250 kg vermicompost for 30 days (1:5 ratio) at critical stages of crop growth along with the Soil Test Crop Response (STCR) based N,P2O5 and K2O RDF registered the maximum plant height at all three stages (40,70 and harvest) of crop growth (94.7, 122.3 and 222.2 cm), number of monopodial branches plant-1 (33.4), number of sympodial branches plant-1(73.1), numbers of boll plant-1 (48.3), boll weight (3.9 g), and seed cotton yield (26.2 q ha-1). This was followed by treatment (T9) MgSO4 at a rate of 50 kg ha-1 incubated with 500 kg FYM for 30 days (1:10 ratio) along with STCR) based N,P2O5 and K2O RDF and the lowest treatment receiving the recommended dose of N, P2O5 and K2O alone (80:40:40 kg ha1). It was revealed that natural chelated fertilizer prepared from MgSO4 incubated with organic manures for 30 days significantly improved the growth and yield of cotton

    Climate nutrient management for various sources and levels of fertilizers on soil nutrients, growth and yield of maize (Zea mays l.) in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India

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    Global climate change is expected to soil processes and properties, which are important for restoring soil fertility and low productivity. The field experiment was conducted at Research Farm, Agricultural College, and Research Institute, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, during Kharif season 2021 to study of various sources and fertilizers' levels to influence under deficit and excess water conditions on soil fertility, growth, and yield of maize (Zea mays). The study revealed that excess and deficit water condition in moisture regime irrigations at Irrigation water / Cumulative Pan Evaporation (IW/CPE) ratio of 1.0 along with nutrient management practices (N8) 125 % Soil Test Crop Response (STCR) - NPK soil application by 1 % foliar spray of micronutrient mixture. Significantly higher of mean values available nitrogen (225 kg ha-1), available phosphorous (20.81 kg ha-1), available potassium (351 kg ha-1), dry matter production (DMP) (16,404 kg ha-1), plant height (250 cm) and yield (9,030 kg ha-1) and was comparable with IW/CPE ratio of 0.8, 0.6 along with others nutrient management practices at 100 % and 75 % STCR - NPK followed by foliar sprays 2 % NPK (19:19:19) and Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM) 1 %. Hence, under a normal water availability situation, irrigation at an IW/CPE ratio of 0.8 was good enough to produce a higher yield, while under deficit and excess water conditions IW/CPE ratio of 1.0 along with125 % STCR-NPK by foliar spray of micronutrient mixture of 1 % was suitable for obtaining optimum nutrient management for enhancing soil fertility, growth and yield of maize

    Risk Prediction in Acute Calculous Cholecystitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prognostic Factors and Predictive Models

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    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the main treatment of acute cholecystitis. Although considered relatively safe, it carries 6%–9% risk of major complications and 0.1%–1% risk of mortality. There is no consensus regarding the evaluation of the preoperative risks, and the management of patients with acute cholecystitis is usually guided by surgeon's personal preferences. We assessed the best method to identify patients with acute cholecystitis who are at high risk of complications and mortality. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of studies that reported the preoperative prediction of outcomes in people with acute cholecystitis. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, WHO ICTRP, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Science Citation Index Expanded until April 27, 2019. We performed a meta-analysis when possible. RESULTS: Six thousand eight hundred twenty-seven people were included in one or more analyses in 12 studies. Tokyo guidelines 2013 (TG13) predicted mortality (two studies; Grade 3 versus Grade 1: odds ratio [OR] 5.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.79–9.26). Gender predicted conversion to open cholecystectomy (two studies; OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.06–2.39). None of the factors reported in at least two studies had significant predictive ability of major or minor complications. CONCLUSION: There is significant uncertainty in the ability of prognostic factors and risk prediction models in predicting outcomes in people with acute calculous cholecystitis. Based on studies of high risk of bias, TG13 Grade 3 severity may be associated with greater mortality than Grade 1. Early referral of such patients to high-volume specialist centers should be considered. Further well-designed prospective studies are necessary
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