2,330 research outputs found

    Synthesis of Boronic Acid Based Sensors for Glucose and Sialic Acid and Synthesis of Novel and Selective PDE4 Enzyme Inhibitors

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    The boronic acid functional group is known to bind compounds with the diol group tightly and reversibly in aqueous environment and has been used as a recognition moiety for the design of carbohydrate sensors. The first chapter of the dissertation studies the synthesis and substitution effect on the affinity and selectivity of a known boronic acid-based glucose sensor. In such a sensor design effort, the availability of a signaling event, whether it is fluorescence or UV, is crucial. The second chapter studies the detailed mechanism on how a well-known fluorescent boronic acid compound changes fluorescent properties upon binding. A new mechanism has been established which corrected a decade old mistake. In the third chapter, a series of boronic acid-based sensors were designed and synthesized for sialic acid, which is part of tetrasaccharide found on many cell surface carbohydrates. Such sialic acid sensors could be very useful for the development of new type of anti-influenza therapy. The fourth is on the design and synthesis novel and selective inhibitors for phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), which are potential anti-asthma agents

    An Energy Efficient Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy Routing Protocol base on I-Node

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    Wireless networks are quite important for wireless data transfer, which require an energy source. The wireless devices had limited energy as they operate on battery, which need replacement. This becomes the major bottleneck of wireless sensor devices. The replacement of batteries is quite costly, so the need of hour is to enhance the lifetime of the network. This will utilize the network energy in proper manner which reduce the overall global cost of the network. In this paper, an energy efficient routing is proposed based on I-Node which reduce energy consumption of the network

    CACHE MANAGEMENT SCHEMES FOR USER EQUIPMENT CONTEXTS IN 5TH GENERATION CLOUD RADIO ACCESS NETWORKS

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    Advances in cellular network technology continue to develop to address increasing demands from the growing number of devices resulting from the Internet of Things, or IoT. IoT has brought forth countless new equipment competing for service on cellular networks. The latest in cellular technology is 5th Generation Cloud Radio Access Networks, or 5G C-RAN, which consists of an architectural design created specifically to meet novel and necessary requirements for better performance, reduced latency of service, and scalability. As part of this design is the inclusion of a virtual cache, there is a necessity for useful cache management schemes and protocols, which ultimately will provide users better performance on the cellular network. This paper explores a few different cache management schemes, and analyzes their performance in comparison to each other. They include a probability based scoring scheme for cache elements; a hierarchical, or tiered, approach aimed at separating the cache into different levels or sections; and enhancements to previously existing approaches including reverse random marking as well as a scheme based on an exponential decay model. These schemes aim to offer better hit ratios, reduced latency of request service, preferential treatment based on users’ service levels and mobility, and a reduction in network traffic compared to other traditional and classic caching mechanisms

    ASSESSMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS WITH SECONDARY COMPLICATIONS

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    Objective: The main aim of the present study was to investigate the levels of lipid and lipoproteins in causing secondary microvascular complications in diabetic patients. Patients of Type II diabetes mellitus are highly susceptible to various complications due to long-term persistence of hyperglycemic state in the body. Thus, it is imperative to study the effect of hyperglycemia on lipids as their subsequent oxidation can lead to complications such as nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy in diabetics which can further lead to macrovascular complications in the body. Methods: The diabetic patients were divided into two groups, based on the presence/absence of secondary microvascular complications, namely, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Two types of cases were included in the study, on the basis of duration, namely, 0–5 years and 5–10 years duration. Blood samples were collected and levels of hemoglobin and glycated hemoglobin were determined. The biochemical parameters, namely, random blood sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and very LDLs were estimated. Results: The lipid levels altered in diabetic patients, leading to the dyslipidemia and the cumulative effect of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia leads to the oxidative stress in the body. The increased oxidation of lipids may lead to the occurrence of microvascular complications in the body. Furthermore, dyslipidemia has been found more prevalent in males as compared to females. Conclusion: Due to the increased prevalence of diabetes in India, funding of this study would suggest that there is a need to accelerate the importance of monitoring lipid levels in diabetes. Diabetic patients should routinely monitor their glycemic status, renal, and lipid profile to avert microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus

    EVALUATION OF LIVER AND LIPID PARAMETERS IN CHOLELITHIASIS

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    Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to compare the biochemical parameters in gallstones patients and controls and to study the differences in their levels in male and female patients. Methods: The patient data were collected from the Navpreet Hospital, Amritsar. All the demographic data and ultrasonographic features were noted in a pre-structured pro forma of cholelithiasis patients. The blood sample was collected in aseptic conditions and serum biochemical parameters of liver (serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase [SGOT] and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase [SGPT]) and lipids (cholesterol and triglyceride) were investigated in the patients. Results: In this study, it was found that cholelithiasis is more prevalent in females (76%) as compared to females (26%). The SGOT and SGPT levels were higher in 20–40 years age group females with a mean of 78±7.12 and 70±5.34 mg/dl, respectively. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level also increases in female patients with a mean of 106±5.36 mg/dl. Same pattern was observed for bilirubin and lipid levels. Conclusion: The prevalence of gallstones was found more in females than males. Serum cholesterol, triglyceride, SGOT, SGPT and ALP, and bilirubin play a major contributing role in the formation of gallstone in females. Incidence of gallstones is most often correlated with dietary factors, obesity or overweight, sedentary lifestyle, eating high fat and cholesterol diet, eating low-fiber diet, having a family history of gallstones, and having liver disease

    Present Scenario Of Micro, Small And Medium Enterprise In India

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    Micro, Middle (little) and Medium Enterprises play a central role in the economic and social development of the country. It is also playing a key role in the development of the economy and Socialistic with its dominant, efficient, flexible and innovative entrepreneurial spirit. MSMEs contribute around 45% in the industrial output, 40% of exports, employing 60 million people; create 1.3 million jobs every year for the unemployed people. It produces more than 8,000 to 9000 quality products for the Indian and international markets. Its contribution towards GDP in 2011 was 17% which increased to 22% in 2012. This paper analyses the various challenges and opportunities associated with MSMEs in India

    A Quasi Experimental Study to Compare the Effect of Semi-Sitting Versus Left Lateral Position on Maternal and Foetal Bio-Physiological Parameters Among Antenatal Women Undergoing Non Stress Test in Tertiary Care Hospital of Patiala, Punjab

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    Background of the study NST is a simple, non invasive test performed in pregnancy over 28 weeks of gestation. Pregnant women are generally positioned in the supine position because this position allow easy administration of the test. But supine position cause aortacaval compression which decrease blood supply to the fetus hence shows non reactive results. Hence position is one of the main factor which should be considered during non stress test. Methodology Aquasi experimental design was used. Total 60 antenatal women (30 experimental group I, 30 experimental group II) was selected by purposive sampling technique. Data collection method- Baseline maternal foetal bio-physiological parameters were assessed by performing NST for 10 minutes in baseline position(supine position) among experimental groups and then after a gap of 10 minutes semi-sitting and left lateral position was given to experimental group I and II respectively. Maternal and foetal bio-physiological parameters were assessed after 10 minutes of NST in both experimental groups I and II.Results Result of the present study revealed that baseline (supine) when compared with Semi-sitting position had significant effect on maternal foetal bio-physiological parameters at (p<0.05) level of significance however when baseline (supine) compared with left lateral position had no significant effect on maternal bio- physiological parameters except on pulse rate at (p<0.05) level of significance whereas left lateral position had significant effect on foetal bio-physiological parameters except baseline heart rate and deceleration at (p<0.05) level of significance. When semi-sitting compared with left lateral had no significant effect on maternal foetal bio-physiological parameters at (p<0.05) level of significance. Conclusion Baseline position(supine) when altered to semi-sitting or left lateral position influence the maternal foetal bio-physiological parameters. Semi-sitting when compared with left lateral had no significant effect on maternal and foetal bio- physiological parameters

    Determination of economic threshold level for the timely management of cotton jassid Amrasca bigutulla (Ishida) on okra vegetable crop

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    A field study was carried out at Vegetable Research Farm PAU, Ludhiana to determine the economic threshold level for the timely management of cotton jassid Amrasca bigutulla (Ishida) on okra vegetable crop. It was observed that significantly lowest jassid nymphal count per leaf in the pooled data (0.96 nymphs/leaf) were registered in the treatment where spray against jassid were given at 2 nymphs/leaf stage and first injury grade that is curling and yellowing of leaf margin as compared to others spray stages (1.54-1.72 nymphs/leaf) and unsprayed control (1.75 nymphs/leaf) significantly lowest jassid injury grade was also observed when spray stared at 2 nymphs/ leaf (0.58) and second spray stage curling and yellowing of leaf margin (0.65 nymphs/leaf) as against other spray stages (1.13 – 1.60 nymphs/leaf) and unsprayed control (1.63 nymphs/leaf). Maximum plant (110.33-110.44 cm) was also recorded as against other treatment (90.80 – 108.46 cm) and control (90.13cm). Total highest fruit yield (120.40-120.75) quintal /ha was also registered in these two treatments. Economic threshold level estimated for the management of cotton jassid on okra crop will help to develop an ecologically safe pest management practices against this pest

    Nature curing cancer – review on structural modification studies with natural active compounds having anti-tumor efficiency

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    AbstractCancer treatment has raised many drugs and radiation therapies whose side-effects are visible. Ongoing research throughout the world for effective treatment mainly concentrates on methods either in the form of drugs or therapies against this lethal disease. However returning to ayurvedic roots enlightens the fact that nature has many efficient components with anti-cancerous, anti-proliferating and anti-angiogenesis effects. Evidences confirm the participation of plants extracts in synthesizing many medicines against already existing and even emerging diseases. Structure activity relationship (SAR) studies and structural modifications are helping in observing the basis of compounds characteristics to exhibit inhibitor’s nature against carcinogenic agents by modifying parent compounds for creating an improved and potent compound. Many components are under clinical trials but most of them still need attention. In this review an attempt has been made to focus on the natural components gifted by nature and even included in our diet with their structures and sources that could be supportive in designing drug either by computational methods or by experimental methods

    Quality characteristics of white cabbage juice stored using thermal processing and addition of chemical additives

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    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) is one of the most important vegetables grown worldwide. Cabbage is valued for medicinal purposes in treating headaches, gout, diarrhea and peptic ulcers. The beneficial phytochemicals in cabbage help to activate and stabilize the body’s antioxidant and detoxification mechanisms that dismantle and eliminate cancer-producing substances. This seasonal vegetable can be made available for the consumers in off seasons also in the form of juice. The juice can be made shelf stable by using thermal treatment and various chemical additives. Therefore, the aim of the experiment was to compare the effect of different chemical additives namely Sodium benzoate, Potassium metabisulfite (KMS) and their combinations and the heat treatment, on the physicochemical, phytochemical parameters and antioxidant activity of Cabbage juice for a period of 6 months at room temperature at the regular intervals.The parameters like TS and TSS did not change significantly. The minimum increase in acidity was found in samples treated with combination of Sodium benzoate and Potassium metabisulfite. The color was best preserved by addition of KMS where the L value changed from 52.66 to 50.86 after 6 months. The ascorbic acid, total phenol content and antioxidant activity was best preserved by KMS with final values of 2.51 mg/100 g, 21.18 mg/100 g and 15.97 % respectively that were far better than the thermally treated samples with values 1.47 mg/100 g, 8.14 mg/100 g and 6.98 % respectively. Keeping in view all the parameters KMS was found to be the most appropriate agent for preservation
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