104,109 research outputs found

    Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull Lesion: A Dilemma in Treatment.

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    Thyroid surgeons are becoming increasingly more aware of a histologically distinct subset of thyroid carcinoma whose classification falls between well-differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas with respect to both cell differentiation and clinical behavior. This subtype of tumors has been categorized as poorly differentiated or insular carcinoma, based on its characteristic cell groupings. Although the differentiation of insular carcinoma from other thyroid carcinomas has important prognostic and therapeutic significance, relatively little about insular carcinoma has been published in the otolaryngology literature. In this article, we discuss a case of insular carcinoma of thyroid presenting with concurrent distant metastasis to skull, lung, ribs, and inguinal region with review of the literature. We conclude that insular thyroid carcinoma warrants aggressive management with total thyroidectomy and excision of accessible giant lesion followed by radioactive iodine ablation of any remaining thyroid tissue

    Deformation and break-up of viscoelastic droplets in confined shear flow

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    The deformation and break-up of Newtonian/viscoelastic droplets are studied in confined shear flow. Our numerical approach is based on a combination of Lattice-Boltzmann models (LBM) and finite difference schemes, the former used to model two immiscible fluids with variable viscous ratio, and the latter used to model the polymer dynamics. The kinetics of the polymers is introduced using constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids with finitely extensible non-linear elastic dumbbells with Peterlin's closure (FENE-P). We quantify the droplet response by changing the polymer relaxation time τP\tau_P, the maximum extensibility LL of the polymers, and the degree of confinement, i.e. the ratio of the droplet diameter to gap spacing. In unconfined shear flow, the effects of droplet viscoelasticity on the critical Capillary number \mbox{Ca}_{\mbox{\tiny{cr}}} for break-up are moderate in all cases studied. However, in confined conditions a different behaviour is observed: the critical Capillary number of a viscoelastic droplet increases or decreases, depending on the maximum elongation of the polymers, the latter affecting the extensional viscosity of the polymeric solution. Force balance is monitored in the numerical simulations to validate the physical picture.Comment: 34 Pages, 13 Figures. This Work applies the Numerical Methodology described in arXiv:1406.2686 to the Problem of Droplet Break-up in confined microchannel

    Masses and Strong Decay properties of Radially Excited Bottom states B(2S)and B(2P) with their Strange Partners Bs(2S) and Bs(2P)

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    In this paper, we analyzed the experimentally available radially excited charm mesons to predict the similar spectra for the n=2 bottom mesons. In the heavy quark effective theory, we explore the flavor independent parameters to calculate the masses for the experimentally unknown n=2 bottom mesons B(2S), B(2P), Bs(2S) and Bs(2P). We have also analyzed these bottom masses by applying the QCD and 1/mQ corrections to the lagrangian leading to the modification of flavor symmetry parameters as. Further strong decay widths are determined using these calculated masses to check the sensitivity of these corrections for these radially excited mesons. The calculated decay widths are in the form of strong coupling constant geHH, egSH and egTH. We concluded that these corrections are less sensitive for n=2 masses as compared to n=1 masses. Branching ratios and branching fractions of these states are calculated to have a deeper understanding of these states. These predicted values can be confronted with the future experimental data.Comment: 11 Pages, 6 Table

    Hybrid Lattice Boltzmann/Finite Difference simulations of viscoelastic multicomponent flows in confined geometries

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    We propose numerical simulations of viscoelastic fluids based on a hybrid algorithm combining Lattice-Boltzmann models (LBM) and Finite Differences (FD) schemes, the former used to model the macroscopic hydrodynamic equations, and the latter used to model the polymer dynamics. The kinetics of the polymers is introduced using constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids with finitely extensible non-linear elastic dumbbells with Peterlin's closure (FENE-P). The numerical model is first benchmarked by characterizing the rheological behaviour of dilute homogeneous solutions in various configurations, including steady shear, elongational flows, transient shear and oscillatory flows. As an upgrade of complexity, we study the model in presence of non-ideal multicomponent interfaces, where immiscibility is introduced in the LBM description using the "Shan-Chen" model. The problem of a confined viscoelastic (Newtonian) droplet in a Newtonian (viscoelastic) matrix under simple shear is investigated and numerical results are compared with the predictions of various theoretical models. The proposed numerical simulations explore problems where the capabilities of LBM were never quantified before.Comment: 32 Pages, 11 Figure

    Fe and N self-diffusion in non-magnetic Fe:N

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    Fe and N self-diffusion in non-magnetic FeN has been studied using neutron reflectivity. The isotope labelled multilayers, FeN/57Fe:N and Fe:N/Fe:15N were prepared using magnetron sputtering. It was remarkable to observe that N diffusion was slower compared to Fe while the atomic size of Fe is larger compared to N. An attempt has been made to understand the diffusion of Fe and N in non-magnetic Fe:N

    Origin of the unusual dependence of Raman D band on excitation wavelength in graphite-like materials

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    We have revisited the still unresolved puzzle of the dispersion of the Raman disordered-induced D band as a function of laser excitation photon energy EL_L in graphite-like materials. We propose that the D-mode is a combination of an optic phonon at the K-point in the Brillioun zone and an acoustic phonon whose momentum is determined uniquely by the double resonance condition. The fit of the experimental data with the double-resonance model yields the reduced effective mass of 0.025me_{e} for the electron-hole pairs corresponding to the A2_{2} transition, in agreement with other experiments. The model can also explain the difference between ωS\omega_S and ωAS\omega_{AS} for D and D^{\star} modes, and predicts its dependence on the Raman excitation frequency.Comment: 4 figures in eps forma