507 research outputs found

    MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery in musculoskeletal diseases: the hot topics

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    MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) is a minimally invasive treatment guided by the most sophisticated imaging tool available in today's clinical practice. Both the imaging and therapeutic sides of the equipment are based on non-ionizing energy. This technique is a very promising option as potential treatment for several pathologies, including musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders. Apart from clinical applications, MRgFUS technology is the result of long, heavy and cumulative efforts exploring the effects of ultrasound on biological tissues and function, the generation of focused ultrasound and treatment monitoring by MRI. The aim of this article is to give an updated overview on a "new" interventional technique and on its applications for MSK and allied sciences

    Sterile neutrinos: the necessity for a 5 sigma definitive clarification

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    Several different experiments have hinted to the existence of "anomalies" in the neutrino sector, implying the possible presence of additional sterile neutrinos or of other options. A definitive experimental search, capable to clarify either in favour or against all these anomalies at the appropriate > 5 sigma level has been proposed by the ICARUS-NESSIE Collaboration. The technique is based on two innovative concepts, namely (1) a large mass Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC) now in full operation at LNGS and (2) the search for spectral differences in two identical detectors at different distances along the (anti-)neutrino line(s).Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures, 1 tabl

    Mario Campanacci, 1932-1999

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    This history page in the series "Leaders in Musculoskeletal Radiology" is dedicated to the memory and achievements of the Italian scientist Mario Campanacci, whose name is connected to the medical eponym Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome and to the field and progress of musculoskeletal oncology

    Anatomical variation in the ankle and foot: from incidental finding to inductor of pathology. Part II: midfooot and forefoot

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    Accessory anatomical structures in the ankle and foot usually represent incidental imaging findings; however, they may also eventually represent a source of pathology, such as painful syndromes, degenerative changes, be the subject of overuse and trauma, or appear as masses and cause compression syndromes or impingement. This review aims to describe and illustrate the imaging findings related to the presence of accessory ossicles and muscles in the midfoot and forefoot through different techniques, with special attention on those variants that associate factors of clinical relevance or that would trigger challenges in the differential diagnosis

    Wavelength locking of silicon photonics multiplexer for DML-based WDM transmitter

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    We present a wavelength locking platform enabling the feedback control of silicon (Si) microring resonators (MRRs) for the realization of a 4 √ó 10 Gb/s wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transmitter. Four thermally tunable Si MRRs are employed to multiplex the signals generated by four directly modulated lasers (DMLs) operating in the L-band, as well as to improve the quality of the DMLs signals. Feedback control is achieved through a field-programmable gate array controller by monitoring the working point of each MRR through a transparent detector integrated inside the resonator. The feedback system provides an MRR wavelength stability of about 4 pm (0.5 GHz) with a time response of 60 ms. Bit error rate (BER) measurements confirm the effectiveness and the robustness of the locking system to counteract sensitivity degradations due to thermal drifts, even under uncooled operation conditions for the Si chip

    Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes and immune-related genes as predictors of outcome in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

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    Background: We investigated the correlation between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patient progno- sis and the presence of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes and expression of 521 immune sys- tem genes. Methods: Intratumoural CD3+, CD8+, and CD20+ lymphocytes were examined by immunohistochem- istry in 12 PDAC patients with different outcomes who underwent pancreaticoduodenect- omy. The results were correlated with gene expression profile using the digital multiplexed NanoString nCounter analysis system (NanoString Technologies, Seattle, WA, USA). Results: Twenty immune system genes were significantly differentially expressed in patients with a good prognosis relative to patients with a worse prognosis: TLR2 and TLR7 (Toll-like recep- tor superfamily); CD4, CD37, FOXP3, PTPRC (B cell and T cell signalling); IRF5, IRF8, STAT1, TFE3 (transcription factors); ANP32B, CCND3 (cell cycle); BTK (B cell develop- ment); TNF, TNFRF1A (TNF superfamily); HCK (leukocyte function); C1QA (complement system); BAX, PNMA1 (apoptosis); IKBKE (NF\u3baB pathway). Differential expression was more than twice log 2 for TLR7, TNF, C1QA, FOXP3, and CD37. Discussion: Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes were present at higher levels in samples from patients with better prognosis. Our findings indicate that tumour infiltrating lymphocyte levels and expres- sion level of the immune system genes listed above influence pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma prognosis. This information could be used to improve selection of best responders to immune inhibitors

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Italian Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AME) and Italian Chapter of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Position Statement : clinical Management of Vitamin D Deficiency in Adults

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    Vitamin D deficiency is very common and prescriptions of both assay and supplementation are increasing more and more. Health expenditure is exponentially increasing, thus it is timely and appropriate to establish rules. The Italian Association of Clinical Endocrinologists appointed a task force to review literature about vitamin D deficiency in adults. Four topics were identified as worthy for the practicing clinicians. For each topic recommendations based on scientific evidence and clinical practice were issued according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) System. (1) What cut-off defines vitamin D deficiency: even though 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L) can be considered appropriate in the general population, we recommend to maintain levels above 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) in categories at risk. (2) Whom, when, and how to perform screening for vitamin D deficiency: categories at risk (patients with bone, liver, kidney diseases, obesity, malabsorption, during pregnancy and lactation, some elderly) but not healthy people should be screened by the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D assay. (3) Whom and how to treat vitamin D deficiency: beyond healthy lifestyle (mostly sun exposure), we recommend oral vitamin D (vitamin D2 or vitamin D3) supplementation in patients treated with bone active drugs and in those with demonstrated deficiency. Dosages, molecules and modalities of administration can be profitably individually tailored. (4) How to monitor the efficacy of treatment with vitamin D: no routine monitoring is suggested during vitamin D treatment due to its large therapeutic index. In particular conditions, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D can be assayed after at least a 6-month treatment. We are confident that this document will help practicing clinicians in their daily clinical practice
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