2,522 research outputs found

    Bioinformatics and mathematical modelling in the study of receptor-receptor interactions and receptor oligomerization: focus on adenosine receptors.

    Get PDF
    none8sĂŹThe concept of intra-membrane receptor-receptor interactions (RRIs) between different types of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and evidence for their existence was introduced by Agnati and Fuxe in 1980/81 through the biochemical analysis of the effects of neuropeptides on the binding characteristics of monoamine receptors in membrane preparations from discrete brain regions and functional studies of the interactions between neuropeptides and monoamines in the control of specific functions such as motor control and arterial blood pressure control in animal models. Whether GPCRs can form high-order structures is still a topic of an intense debate. Increasing evidence, however, suggests that the hypothesis of the existence of high-order receptor oligomers is correct. A fundamental consequence of the view describing GPCRs as interacting structures, with the likely formation at the plasma membrane of receptor aggregates of multiple receptors (Receptor Mosaics) is that it is no longer possible to describe signal transduction simply as the result of the binding of the chemical signal to its receptor, but rather as the result of a filtering/integration of chemical signals by the Receptor Mosaics (RMs) and membrane-associated proteins. Thus, in parallel with experimental research, significant efforts were spent in bioinformatics and mathematical modelling. We review here the main approaches that have been used to assess the interaction interfaces allowing the assembly of GPCRs and to shed some light on the integrative functions emerging from the complex behaviour of these RMs. Particular attention was paid to the RMs generated by adenosine A(2A), dopamine D-2, cannabinoid CB1, and metabotropic glutamate mGlu(5) receptors (A(2A). D-2, CB1, and mGlu(5), respectively), and a possible approach to model the interplay between the D-2-A(2A)-CB1 and D-2-A(2A)-mGlu(5) trimers is proposed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Adenosine Receptors". (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.openD. GUIDOLIN; F. CIRUELA; S. GENEDANI; M. GUESCINI; C. TORTORELLA; G. ALBERTIN; K. FUXE; L.F. AGNATID., Guidolin; F., Ciruela; S., Genedani; Guescini, Michele; C., Tortorella; G., Albertin; K., Fuxe; L. F., Agnat

    Microvesicle and tunneling nanotube mediated intercellular transfer of g-protein coupled receptors in cell cultures.

    Get PDF
    none12Recent evidence shows that cells exchange collections of signals via microvesicles (MVs) and tunneling nano-tubes (TNTs). In this paper we have investigated whether in cell cultures GPCRs can be transferred by means of MVs and TNTs from a source cell to target cells. Western blot, transmission electron microscopy and gene expression analyses demonstrate that A(2A) and D(2) receptors are present in released MVs. In order to further demonstrate the involvement of MVs in cell-to-cell communication we created two populations of cells (HEK293T and COS-7) transiently transfected with D(2)R-CFP or A(2A)R-YFP. These two types of cells were co-cultured, and FRET analysis demonstrated simultaneously positive cells to the D(2)R-CFP and A(2A)R-YFP. Fluorescence microscopy analysis also showed that GPCRs can move from one cell to another also by means of TNTs. Finally, recipient cells pre-incubated for 24 h with A(2A)R positive MVs were treated with the adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist CGS-21680. The significant increase in cAMP accumulation clearly demonstrated that A(2A)Rs were functionally competent in target cells. These findings demonstrate that A(2A) receptors capable of recognizing and decoding extracellular signals can be safely transferred via MVs from source to target cells.openM. Guescini; G. Leo; S. Genedani; C. Carone; F. Pederzoli; F. Ciruela; D. Guidolin; V. Stocchi; M. Mantuano; D.O. Borroto-Escuela; K. Fuxe; L.F. AgnatiGuescini, Michele; G., Leo; S., Genedani; C., Carone; F., Pederzoli; F., Ciruela; D., Guidolin; Stocchi, Vilberto; Mantuano, Michela; D. O., Borroto Escuela; K., Fuxe; L. F., Agnat

    Detection and investigation of extracellular vesicles in serum and urine supernatant of prostate cancer patients

    Get PDF
    Prostate Cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently identified urological cancers. PCa patients are often over-diagnosed due to still not highly specific diagnostic methods. The need for more accurate diagnostic tools to prevent overestimated diagnosis and unnecessary treatment of patients with non-malignant conditions is clear, and new markers and methods are strongly desirable. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) hold great promises as liquid biopsy-based markers. Despite the biological and technical issues present in their detection and study, these particles can be found highly abundantly in the biofluid and encompass a wealth of macromolecules that have been reported to be related to many physiological and pathological processes, including cancer onset, metastasis spreading, and treatment resistance. The present study aims to perform a technical feasibility study to develop a new workflow for investigating EVs from several biological sources. Serum and urinary supernatant EVs of PCa, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients, and healthy donors were isolated and investigated by a fast, easily performable, and cost-effective cytofluorimetric approach for a multiplex detection of 37 EV-antigens. We also observed significant alterations in serum and urinary supernatant EVs potentially related to BPH and PCa, suggesting a potential clinical application of this workflow

    Extrasynaptic Neurotransmission in the Modulation of Brain Function. Focus on the Striatal Neuronal–Glial Networks

    Get PDF
    Extrasynaptic neurotransmission is an important short distance form of volume transmission (VT) and describes the extracellular diffusion of transmitters and modulators after synaptic spillover or extrasynaptic release in the local circuit regions binding to and activating mainly extrasynaptic neuronal and glial receptors in the neuroglial networks of the brain. Receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteromers play a major role, on dendritic spines and nerve terminals including glutamate synapses, in the integrative processes of the extrasynaptic signaling. Heteromeric complexes between GPCR and ion-channel receptors play a special role in the integration of the synaptic and extrasynaptic signals. Changes in extracellular concentrations of the classical synaptic neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA found with microdialysis is likely an expression of the activity of the neuron-astrocyte unit of the brain and can be used as an index of VT-mediated actions of these two neurotransmitters in the brain. Thus, the activity of neurons may be functionally linked to the activity of astrocytes, which may release glutamate and GABA to the extracellular space where extrasynaptic glutamate and GABA receptors do exist. Wiring transmission (WT) and VT are fundamental properties of all neurons of the CNS but the balance between WT and VT varies from one nerve cell population to the other. The focus is on the striatal cellular networks, and the WT and VT and their integration via receptor heteromers are described in the GABA projection neurons, the glutamate, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and histamine striatal afferents, the cholinergic interneurons, and different types of GABA interneurons. In addition, the role in these networks of VT signaling of the energy-dependent modulator adenosine and of endocannabinoids mainly formed in the striatal projection neurons will be underlined to understand the communication in the striatal cellular networks

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Get PDF
    This paper presents measurements of the W+→Ό+ÎœW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and W−→Ό−ΜW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13

    Search for chargino-neutralino production with mass splittings near the electroweak scale in three-lepton final states in √s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector