33 research outputs found

    KESTREL and KITE: 52-Week Results From Two Phase III Pivotal Trials of Brolucizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema.

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    PURPOSE To compare the efficacy and safety of brolucizumab with aflibercept in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). DESIGN Double-masked, 100-week, multicenter, active-controlled, randomized trials. METHODS Subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to brolucizumab 3 mg/6 mg or aflibercept 2 mg in KESTREL (n = 566) or 1:1 to brolucizumab 6 mg or aflibercept 2 mg in KITE (n = 360). Brolucizumab groups received 5 loading doses every 6 weeks (q6w) followed by 12-week (q12w) dosing, with optional adjustment to every 8 weeks (q8w) if disease activity was identified at predefined assessment visits; aflibercept groups received 5 doses every 4 weeks (q4w) followed by fixed q8w dosing. The primary endpoint was best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) change from baseline at Week 52; secondary endpoints included the proportion of subjects maintained on q12w dosing, change in Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scale score, and anatomical and safety outcomes. RESULTS At Week 52, brolucizumab 6 mg was noninferior (NI margin 4 letters) to aflibercept in mean change in BCVA from baseline (KESTREL: +9.2 letters vs +10.5 letters; KITE: +10.6 letters vs +9.4 letters; P < .001), more subjects achieved central subfield thickness (CSFT) <280 ”m, and fewer had persisting subretinal and/or intraretinal fluid vs aflibercept, with more than half of brolucizumab 6 mg subjects maintained on q12w dosing after loading. In KITE, brolucizumab 6 mg showed superior improvements in change of CSFT from baseline over Week 40 to Week 52 vs aflibercept (P = .001). The incidence of ocular serious adverse events was 3.7% (brolucizumab 3 mg), 1.1% (brolucizumab 6 mg), and 2.1% (aflibercept) in KESTREL; and 2.2% (brolucizumab 6 mg) and 1.7% (aflibercept) in KITE. CONCLUSION Brolucizumab 6 mg showed robust visual gains and anatomical improvements with an overall favorable benefit/risk profile in patients with DME

    Microsystem array for live high voltage lines monitoring

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    peer reviewedThe use of microsystems at very high electromagnetic fields on power lines to monitor movements

    From intracellular bacteria to differentiated bacteroids : transcriptome and metabolome analysis in aeschynomene nodules using the Bradyrhizobium sp. Strain ORS285 bclA mutant

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    Soil bacteria called rhizobia trigger the formation of root nodules on legume plants. The rhizobia infect these symbiotic organs and adopt an intracellular lifestyle within the nodule cells, where they differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Several legume lineages force their symbionts into an extreme cellular differentiation, comprising cell enlargement and genome endoreduplication. The antimicrobial peptide transporter BclA is a major determinant of this process in Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS285, a symbiont of Aeschynomene spp. In the absence of BclA, the bacteria proceed until the intracellular infection of nodule cells, but they cannot differentiate into enlarged polyploid and functional bacteroids. Thus, the bclA nodule bacteria constitute an intermediate stage between the free-living soil bacteria and the nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Metabolomics on whole nodules of Aeschynomene afraspera and Aeschynomene indica infected with the wild type or the bclA mutant revealed 47 metabolites that differentially accumulated concomitantly with bacteroid differentiation. Bacterial transcriptome analysis of these nodules demonstrated that the intracellular settling of the rhizobia in the symbiotic nodule cells is accompanied by a first transcriptome switch involving several hundred upregulated and downregulated genes and a second switch accompanying the bacteroid differentiation, involving fewer genes but ones that are expressed to extremely elevated levels. The transcriptomes further suggested a dynamic role for oxygen and redox regulation of gene expression during nodule formation and a nonsymbiotic function of BclA. Together, our data uncover the metabolic and gene expression changes that accompany the transition from intracellular bacteria into differentiated nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. IMPORTANCE Legume-rhizobium symbiosis is a major ecological process, fueling the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle with reduced nitrogen. It also represents a promising strategy to reduce the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture, thereby improving its sustainability. This interaction leads to the intracellular accommodation of rhizobia within plant cells of symbiotic organs, where they differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. In specific legume clades, this differentiation process requires the bacterial transporter BclA to counteract antimicrobial peptides produced by the host. Transcriptome analysis of Bradyrhizobium wild-type and bclA mutant bacteria in culture and in symbiosis with Aeschynomene host plants dissected the bacterial transcriptional response in distinct phases and highlighted functions of the transporter in the free-living stage of the bacterial life cycle

    The ThomX ICS source

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    International audienceThomX is a new generation Compact Compton Source. It is currently commissioned by and at the IJCLab (Laboratoire de physique des 2 infinis - IrĂšne Joliot-Curie (UMR9012)) at Orsay. The first beam is expected at the begining of 2021. The aim of ThomX is to demonstrate the characteristics of an intense and Compact (lab-size) X-ray source based on Compton Scattering. The performances are mostly driven by the laser optical system which is above the state of the art of stored laser power. Proof of principle of various X-ray techniques will be performed thanks to the versatile ThomX beamline. Firstly, this article presents the machine description. Secondly, the issues and limits of the laser system are discussed. Then, the ThomX beamline is described and the machine status conclude the ThomX presentation. Finally, the expected performances for the next years and the possible experiments that can be made with this new machine are detailed

    QUBIC:Exploring the primordial universe with the Q&amp;U bolometric interferometer

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    In this paper we describe QUBIC, an experiment that will observe the polarized microwave sky with a novel approach, which combines the sensitivity of state-of-the art bolometric detectors with the systematic effects control typical of interferometers. QUBIC unique features are the so-called "self-calibration", a technique that allows us to clean the measured data from instrumental effects, and its spectral imaging power, i.e. the ability to separate the signal in various sub-bands within each frequency band. QUBIC will observe the sky in two main frequency bands: 150 GHz and 220 GHz. A technological demonstrator is currently under testing and will be deployed in Argentina during 2019, while the final instrument is expected to be installed during 2020.Comment: Proceedings of the 2018 ICNFP conference, Crete. Published by Universe arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1801.0373

    Trends in Fatal Poisoning Among Drug Users in France From 2011 to 2021

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    Importance The DRAMES (DĂ©cĂšs en Relation avec l’Abus de MĂ©dicaments Et de Substances) register is a database of drug-related deaths with the aim of identifying the psychoactive substances associated with and estimating the trends in these deaths. Our novel approach is based on the collection of data on all deaths for which toxicology experts have performed analyses. Objective To describe drug-related deaths in France and report trends over an 11-year period. Design, Setting, and Participants This case series used a national register to assess 4460 drug-related deaths that occurred from 2011 to 2021 in France. Data analyses were performed from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures Demographic characteristics; medical and substance abuse history; forensic autopsy findings; and toxicology reports. Results Among the 4460 deceased individuals (mean [SD] age, 37.8 [10.5] years), the mortality rate was highest among men (sex ratio, 4.4:1). Of the deaths involving a single or predominant drug, the legal substitution product, methadone, was the leading cause of death during the entire study period, ahead of heroin—44.7% and 35.9% for methadone vs 15.8% and 21.8% for heroin in 2011 and 2021, respectively. Between 2011 and 2021, most of the drug-related deaths shifted from licit to illicit drugs, and statistically significant variations were found for buprenorphine, cocaine, heroin, methadone, and other licit opioids. Deaths related to polydrug use increased from 23.2% in 2011 to 30.6% in 2021. In this context, opioids remained associated with most deaths, with at least 1 opioid being involved in approximately 9 of 10 cases (85.9%) in 2021. However, the main trend was the dramatic increase in drug combinations with cocaine, from less than one-third of cases in 2011 (30.8%) to more than half in 2021 (57.8%). Conclusions and Relevance This case series assessment of 4460 drug-related deaths found that opioids used alone or in combination were the main contributor to drug-related deaths, despite having a lower prevalence than other drugs. This finding is similar to that of other countries; however, in France licit methadone was the leading cause of opioid-related deaths (ahead of heroin) during the study period. Deaths associated with use of cannabis, new psychoactive substances, and stimulants (including amphetamine-type stimulants and cocaine, especially in combination) have increased and should be closely monitored

    Low incidence of SARS-CoV-2, risk factors of mortality and the course of illness in the French national cohort of dialysis patients

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    International audienceThe aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of COVID-19 disease in the French national population of dialysis patients, their course of illness and to identify the risk factors associated with mortality. Our study included all patients on dialysis recorded in the French REIN Registry in April 2020. Clinical characteristics at last follow-up and the evolution of COVID-19 illness severity over time were recorded for diagnosed cases (either suspicious clinical symptoms, characteristic signs on the chest scan or a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) for SARS-CoV-2. A total of 1,621 infected patients were reported on the REIN registry from March 16th, 2020 to May 4th, 2020. Of these, 344 died. The prevalence of COVID-19 patients varied from less than 1% to 10% between regions. The probability of being a case was higher in males, patients with diabetes, those in need of assistance for transfer or treated at a self-care unit. Dialysis at home was associated with a lower probability of being infected as was being a smoker, a former smoker, having an active malignancy, or peripheral vascular disease. Mortality in diagnosed cases (21%) was associated with the same causes as in the general population. Higher age, hypoalbuminemia and the presence of an ischemic heart disease were statistically independently associated with a higher risk of death. Being treated at a selfcare unit was associated with a lower risk. Thus, our study showed a relatively low frequency of COVID-19 among dialysis patients contrary to what might have been assumed

    Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) Near Detector Conceptual Design Report

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    International audienceThe Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is an international, world-class experiment aimed at exploring fundamental questions about the universe that are at the forefront of astrophysics and particle physics research. DUNE will study questions pertaining to the preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, the dynamics of supernovae, the subtleties of neutrino interaction physics, and a number of beyond the Standard Model topics accessible in a powerful neutrino beam. A critical component of the DUNE physics program involves the study of changes in a powerful beam of neutrinos, i.e., neutrino oscillations, as the neutrinos propagate a long distance. The experiment consists of a near detector, sited close to the source of the beam, and a far detector, sited along the beam at a large distance. This document, the DUNE Near Detector Conceptual Design Report (CDR), describes the design of the DUNE near detector and the science program that drives the design and technology choices. The goals and requirements underlying the design, along with projected performance are given. It serves as a starting point for a more detailed design that will be described in future documents