1,838 research outputs found

    Cellular uptake of ribonuclease A-functionalised core-shell silica microspheres

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    Analysis of protein function in a cellular context ideally requires physiologically representative levels of that protein. Thus conventional nucleic acid-based transfection methods are far from ideal owing to the over expression that generally results. Likewise fusions with protein transduction domains can be problematic whilst delivery via liposomes/nanoparticles typically results in endosomal localisation. Recently polymer microspheres have been reported to be highly effective at delivering proteins into cells and thus provide a viable new alternative for protein delivery (protein transduction). Herein we describe the successful delivery of active ribonuclease A into HeLa cells via novel polymer core-silica shell microspheres. Specifically, poly(styrene-co-vinylbenzylisothiouronium chloride) core particles, generated by dispersion polymerisation, were coated with a poly(styrene-co-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate) shell. The resultant core-shell morphology was characterised by transmission electron, scanning electron and fluorescence confocal microscopies, whilst size and surface charge was assessed by dynamic light scattering and zeta-potential measurements, respectively. Subsequently ribonuclease A was coupled to the microspheres using simple carbodiimide chemistry. Gel electrophoresis confirmed and quantified the activity of the immobilised enzyme against purified HeLa RNA. Finally, the polymer-protein particles were evaluated as protein-transduction vectors in vitro to deliver active ribonuclease A to HeLa cells. Cellular uptake of the microspheres was successful and resulted in reduced levels of both intracellular RNA and cell viability

    Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in pp collision events at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    The performance of muon reconstruction, identification, and triggering in CMS has been studied using 40 inverse picobarns of data collected in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV at the LHC in 2010. A few benchmark sets of selection criteria covering a wide range of physics analysis needs have been examined. For all considered selections, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify a muon with a transverse momentum pT larger than a few GeV is above 95% over the whole region of pseudorapidity covered by the CMS muon system, abs(eta) < 2.4, while the probability to misidentify a hadron as a muon is well below 1%. The efficiency to trigger on single muons with pT above a few GeV is higher than 90% over the full eta range, and typically substantially better. The overall momentum scale is measured to a precision of 0.2% with muons from Z decays. The transverse momentum resolution varies from 1% to 6% depending on pseudorapidity for muons with pT below 100 GeV and, using cosmic rays, it is shown to be better than 10% in the central region up to pT = 1 TeV. Observed distributions of all quantities are well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation.Comment: Replaced with published version. Added journal reference and DO

    Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in pp collision events at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV