16 research outputs found

    Shocks in agricultural productivity and CO2 emissions: new environmental challenges for China in the green economy

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    The primary motive behind this research is to see the role of China’s large agriculture sector in promoting or demoting CO2 emissions. Therefore, we applied linear and non-linear ARDL models by collecting data over the period 1971–2019 for China. The results of the linear model suggest that livestock production can help to reduce CO2 emissions both in the short and long run. In the non-linear model, the short-run estimates of livestock production are insignificant, however, in the long run, the positive shock in the livestock production helps to reduce the CO2 emissions and the negative shock is insignificant. On the other side, an increase in crop production deteriorates the environmental quality in the short run in both linear and non-linear models. In long run, the estimate of crop production in the linear model is insignificant and in the non-linear model, the estimated coefficients of both positive and negative shocks in crop production are negative implying that a positive shock reduces the CO2 emissions while the negative shock increases the CO2 emissions

    MICA: A fast short-read aligner that takes full advantage of Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC)

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    Background: Short-read aligners have recently gained a lot of speed by exploiting the massive parallelism of GPU. An uprising alterative to GPU is Intel MIC; supercomputers like Tianhe-2, currently top of TOP500, is built with 48,000 MIC boards to offer ~55 PFLOPS. The CPU-like architecture of MIC allows CPU-based software to be parallelized easily; however, the performance is often inferior to GPU counterparts as an MIC card contains only ~60 cores (while a GPU card typically has over a thousand cores). Results: To better utilize MIC-enabled computers for NGS data analysis, we developed a new short-read aligner MICA that is optimized in view of MIC's limitation and the extra parallelism inside each MIC core. By utilizing the 512-bit vector units in the MIC and implementing a new seeding strategy, experiments on aligning 150 bp paired-end reads show that MICA using one MIC card is 4.9 times faster than BWA-MEM (using 6 cores of a top-end CPU), and slightly faster than SOAP3-dp (using a GPU). Furthermore, MICA's simplicity allows very efficient scale-up when multiple MIC cards are used in a node (3 cards give a 14.1-fold speedup over BWA-MEM). Summary: MICA can be readily used by MIC-enabled supercomputers for production purpose. We have tested MICA on Tianhe-2 with 90 WGS samples (17.47 Tera-bases), which can be aligned in an hour using 400 nodes. MICA has impressive performance even though MIC is only in its initial stage of development. Availability and implementation: MICA's source code is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/mica-aligner under GPL v3. Supplementary information: Supplementary information is available as "Additional File 1". Datasets are available at www.bio8.cs.hku.hk/dataset/mica.published_or_final_versio

    Vertical heterogeneity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in a core sediment sample from the Central Indian Ridge

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    Hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in marine environments and might fuel hydrocarbon-metabolizing microbes in the ocean. Numerous studies have documented microbial hydrocarbon degradation in water columns and deep-sea surface sediment. However, the degradation potential and biogeochemical cycling of hydrocarbons in subsurface sediments remain largely unknown. In this study, we used two different hydrocarbons, n-hexadecane (HEX) and methylcyclohexane (MCH), to investigate the distribution and diversity of hydrocarbon-consuming bacteria in a core sediment sample from the Central Indian Ridge (CIR), which is adjacent to mid-ridge hydrothermal vents in the Indian Ocean. We observed different vertical profiles of HEX- and MCH-degrading bacteria in the core sediments. Specifically, HEX-degrading bacteria were universally distributed, while MCH-degrading bacteria were found only in the intermediate layers of the core sediments. Changing factors including dissolved oxygen might affect the natural distribution of different hydrocarbon consumers. We found that a novel species of the genus C1-B045 might play a pivotal role in metabolizing MCH in the CIR deep biosphere. Through amino acid identity comparison with published sequences, we determined that C1-B045 harbors two novel classes of cyclohexanone monooxygenases involved in MCH metabolism. This study sheds light on the structure and function of hydrocarbon-consuming microbes in deep biospheres

    Reprogramming of Treg cells in the inflammatory microenvironment during immunotherapy: a literature review

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    Regulatory T cells (Treg), as members of CD4+ T cells, have garnered extensive attention in the research of tumor progression. Treg cells have the function of inhibiting the immune effector cells, preventing tissue damage, and suppressing inflammation. Under the stimulation of the tumor inflammatory microenvironment (IM), the reprogramming of Treg cells enhances their suppression of immune responses, ultimately promoting tumor immune escape or tumor progression. Reducing the number of Treg cells in the IM or lowering the activity of Treg cells while preventing their reprogramming, can help promote the body’s anti-tumor immune responses. This review introduces a reprogramming mechanism of Treg cells in the IM; and discusses the regulation of Treg cells on tumor progression. The control of Treg cells and the response to Treg inflammatory reprogramming in tumor immunotherapy are analyzed and countermeasures are proposed. This work will provide a foundation for downregulating the immunosuppressive role of Treg in the inflammatory environment in future tumor immunotherapy

    Mathematic Model of Neutron Dose Rates in the EAST Hall

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    Governance: a challenge for international collaborative research and development: Some recent experiences from Brazil.

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    Abstract - International partnership to carry out collaborative research and development programs has been implemented for a long time. However, with globalization, the economic, social, political and cultural diversity of interacting partners reached levels where this variety of collaborators often has shown some weaknesses in issues like governance. Strong and sound partnerships must be manageable in order to ensure the achievement of the set objectives. Embrapa, as a Brazilian public agricultural research and development institution that coordinates the Brazilian National Agricultural Research System (NARS), has acquired some experience in strengthening the inter-institutional relationship across continents. Recently, Embrapa was involved in a new research program focusing participatory and adaptive research to improve the production and marketability of small ruminants in arid areas of Latin America. The program is supported by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and coordinated by a CGIAR-Center - the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). The program was started at the end of 2003 with the participation of two countries, Brazil and Mexico. Brazil is being represented by Embrapa and Mexico by the National Research Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock (INIFAP). The program has a Steering Committee, where all involved institutions have a representative member, including the donor (IFAD) and research institutions (CGIAR/ICARDA, Embrapa for Brazil and INIFAP for Mexico). The so far obtained results show the viability of international collaborative research programs to improve fund raising and to optimize the use of available human resources.Proceedings 4th Internation Symposium-cum-Workshop Red Cientifica Alemania Lationamericana (RECALL) on International Scientific Cooperation in Higher Education: Participation, Partnership and Perspectives healt in Talca, Chile, Nov. 28 to Dec., 4, 2005
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