33 research outputs found

    La visi贸n socio-pol铆tica sobre el mundo primitivo en el pensamiento de Giambattista Vico

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    El presente ensayo pone de relieve c贸mo Vico fue uno de los pensadores modernos que se plante贸 el objetivo de reconstruir la historia del mundo primitivo. A diferencia de varios autores que le precedieron y de otros contempor谩neos, el fil贸sofo napolitano mostr贸 que el mundo originario, en lugar de id铆lico, se hallaba afligido por el miedo, la angustia y las necesidades b谩sicas. Sin embargo, lo que ante todo define a Vico es el hecho de representar el mundo primitivo no como un bloque fijo y unitario, sino como un mundo constituido en diferentes fases hist贸ricas y por conflictos sociales y de clase. Al carecer de documentos escritos, Vico elabor贸 una reconstrucci贸n de la historia basada en una nueva y revolucionaria teor铆a de mitos que, al fundarse en la creatividad inducida por la fantas铆a, son denominados 鈥渦niversali fantastici鈥 (universales fant谩sticos).This essay emphasizes how Vico was one of the modern philosophers to set himself the goal to reconstruct the history of the primitive world. Differently from several authors who preceded him and also other contemporary thinkers, the Neapolitan philosopher showed that the world of the origin wasn鈥檛 idyllic, but it was affected by fear, anguish and basic needs. What mainly characterizes Vico, however, is the fact that he represented the primitive world not as a unitary and fixed block, but as a world made of different historical phases and of class and social conflicts. As there were no written documents, Vico elaborated a reconstruction of history, basing it on a new and revolutionary theory of myths which, being based on creativity induced by fantasy, are called 鈥渦niversali fantastici鈥 (fantastic universals)

    PREOCCUPAZIONI CULTURALI E CONCEZIONE GIURIDICA IN GIANVINCENZO GRAVINA

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    This essay examines the role taken on by Gianvincenzo Gravina in the cultural context of his times. So, a complex and eclectic character emerges, as he tried to find answers adequate to problems and to propose solutions to the cultural and social matters of a turmoiled period like the one Italy was living, with particular reference to the South of Italy, between the seventeenth and eighteenth century. The juridicial studies, which Gravina was strongly imbued with, were used to deepen both in theory and in practice, the contests of the new concept about knowledge which, on the one hand, had its origins in the classical culture, on the other took into consideration the theories of modern science, too. Gravina attributed a great importance to the study of Roman Law and, through it, also analysed history and language, but above all, the Calabrian philosopher suggested a reading of Roman Law that could be an example to the contemporary social and political world. This essay also deals with the forms of government studied by Gravina in which he, anticipating Montesquieu, reached the conclusion according to which the best form had to consider the substantial presence of jurists, seen among other things, as the members of the emerging middle classes, who could be in control of the same sovereign, able to avoid the danger of an authoritarian and tyrannical drift

    Reflexiones sobre la reciente publicaci贸n de Montesquieu. Tutte le Opere (1721-1754), Milano (rese帽a)

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    Charles-Louis de Secondat, bar贸n de La Br猫de y de Montesquieu (1689- 1755), es uno de los personajes intelectuales m谩s significativos del "siglo de las Luces". Todav铆a hoy, a doscientos cincuenta a帽os de su muerte, son de gran actualidad algunas de sus fundamentales teor铆as y formulaciones, como el principio de la divisi贸n de poderes dentro de un Estado, la concepci贸n de la existencia de un "esp铆ritu" caracter铆stico de cada pueblo, el rechazo de la tortura y la necesidad de conmensurar las penas a los delitos. La relevancia, la complejidad y la riqueza de los temas afrontados por el fil贸sofo franc茅s hacen comprender claramente el motivo por el que autores ilustres se han visto influidos por su pensamiento, y esto ser铆a motivo suficiente para recopilar todos sus escritos

    Height and body-mass index trajectories of school-aged children and adolescents from 1985 to 2019 in 200 countries and territories: a pooled analysis of 2181 population-based studies with 65 million participants

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    Summary Background Comparable global data on health and nutrition of school-aged children and adolescents are scarce. We aimed to estimate age trajectories and time trends in mean height and mean body-mass index (BMI), which measures weight gain beyond what is expected from height gain, for school-aged children and adolescents. Methods For this pooled analysis, we used a database of cardiometabolic risk factors collated by the Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Collaboration. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1985 to 2019 in mean height and mean BMI in 1-year age groups for ages 5鈥19 years. The model allowed for non-linear changes over time in mean height and mean BMI and for non-linear changes with age of children and adolescents, including periods of rapid growth during adolescence. Findings We pooled data from 2181 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in 65 million participants in 200 countries and territories. In 2019, we estimated a difference of 20 cm or higher in mean height of 19-year-old adolescents between countries with the tallest populations (the Netherlands, Montenegro, Estonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina for boys; and the Netherlands, Montenegro, Denmark, and Iceland for girls) and those with the shortest populations (Timor-Leste, Laos, Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea for boys; and Guatemala, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Timor-Leste for girls). In the same year, the difference between the highest mean BMI (in Pacific island countries, Kuwait, Bahrain, The Bahamas, Chile, the USA, and New Zealand for both boys and girls and in South Africa for girls) and lowest mean BMI (in India, Bangladesh, Timor-Leste, Ethiopia, and Chad for boys and girls; and in Japan and Romania for girls) was approximately 9鈥10 kg/m2. In some countries, children aged 5 years started with healthier height or BMI than the global median and, in some cases, as healthy as the best performing countries, but they became progressively less healthy compared with their comparators as they grew older by not growing as tall (eg, boys in Austria and Barbados, and girls in Belgium and Puerto Rico) or gaining too much weight for their height (eg, girls and boys in Kuwait, Bahrain, Fiji, Jamaica, and Mexico; and girls in South Africa and New Zealand). In other countries, growing children overtook the height of their comparators (eg, Latvia, Czech Republic, Morocco, and Iran) or curbed their weight gain (eg, Italy, France, and Croatia) in late childhood and adolescence. When changes in both height and BMI were considered, girls in South Korea, Vietnam, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and some central Asian countries (eg, Armenia and Azerbaijan), and boys in central and western Europe (eg, Portugal, Denmark, Poland, and Montenegro) had the healthiest changes in anthropometric status over the past 3路5 decades because, compared with children and adolescents in other countries, they had a much larger gain in height than they did in BMI. The unhealthiest changes鈥攇aining too little height, too much weight for their height compared with children in other countries, or both鈥攐ccurred in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, New Zealand, and the USA for boys and girls; in Malaysia and some Pacific island nations for boys; and in Mexico for girls. Interpretation The height and BMI trajectories over age and time of school-aged children and adolescents are highly variable across countries, which indicates heterogeneous nutritional quality and lifelong health advantages and risks

    Heterogeneous contributions of change in population distribution of body mass index to change in obesity and underweight NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)

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    From 1985 to 2016, the prevalence of underweight decreased, and that of obesity and severe obesity increased, in most regions, with significant variation in the magnitude of these changes across regions. We investigated how much change in mean body mass index (BMI) explains changes in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, and severe obesity in different regions using data from 2896 population-based studies with 187 million participants. Changes in the prevalence of underweight and total obesity, and to a lesser extent severe obesity, are largely driven by shifts in the distribution of BMI, with smaller contributions from changes in the shape of the distribution. In East and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, the underweight tail of the BMI distribution was left behind as the distribution shifted. There is a need for policies that address all forms of malnutrition by making healthy foods accessible and affordable, while restricting unhealthy foods through fiscal and regulatory restrictions

    Manuale di filosofia del diritto. Figure, categorie, contesti [book review]

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    Este art铆culo rese帽a: Thomas CASADEI y Gianfrancesco ZANETTI, Manuale di filosofia del diritto. Figure, categorie, contesti, Turin, Giappichelli, 2019, V-402 pp

    Il concetto di 芦vero禄 tra filosofia e poesia nel pensiero moderno: le riflessioni di Gian Vincenzo Gravina e di Giambattista Vico

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    The concept of 芦true禄 accepted by modern philosophy conforms to Descartes鈥檚 idea, whose approach affirms the importance of mathematical and scientific subjects, following a quantitative point of view. Gian Vincenzo Gravina and Giambattista Vico criticize such  a concept and propose an idea of 芦true禄 which is closer to the pragmatism of reality, the former by formulating the theory of 芦verisimilar禄, the culmination of which is reached in Tragedie cinque; the latter by elaborating the concept of 芦fantastic universal禄, which in his Scienza nuova, represents the thought, the language and the fundamental phases of the first men of history.Il concetto di 芦vero禄 accolto dalla filosofia moderna si conforma alla visione cartesiana, la cui impostazione tende ad affermare l鈥檌mportanza delle discipline matematiche e scientifiche, seguendo un鈥檕ttica quantitativa. Gian Vincenzo Gravina e Giambattista Vico mettono in discussione tale concetto e propongono un鈥檌dea di 芦vero禄 pi霉 aderente alla concretezza della realt脿, il primo formulando la teoria del 芦verisimile禄, il cui apice viene raggiunto nelle Tragedie cinque, il secondo elaborando il concetto di 芦universale fantastico禄, che nella Scienza nuova rappresenta il pensiero, il linguaggio e le tappe fondamentali dei primi uomini della storia

    Un pensatore tollerante e antidogmatico. Riflessioni su Voltaire, "Storia dell鈥檃ffermazione del cristianesimo", a cura di D. Felice, introduzione di R. Campi, Roma, Aracne, 2020, 162 pp.

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    Written in 1776 and published posthumous for the first time in Kehl鈥檚 editions in 1784 and 1785, the work Storia dell鈥檃ffermazione del cristianesimo ("Histoire de l鈥櫭﹖ablissement du christianisme") represents the apex of Voltaire鈥檚 extended reflections on religion. The tirades that the French philosopher hurled against Christianity and the Church, consequent to a real historical investigation on Christian religion, have the aim to sensitize the reader to the true religions values, in order to spur a critical view which abandons the dogmatic vision imposed by the Church through the centuries. This new vision exhorts the reader to embrace a pure religion, that is to say deism (or, as the philosopher prefers to define it 鈥渢heism鈥). The recent edition of the book, edited by Domenico Felice, represents a further step forward in the definition of the figure of Voltaire, by presenting exhaustively all the components of the work.Redatto nel 1776 e pubblicato per la prima volta postumo nelle edizioni di Kehl del 1784 e del 1785, la Storia dell鈥檃ffermazione del cristianesimo ("Histoire de l鈥櫭﹖ablissement du christianisme") rappresenta l鈥檃pice delle prolungate riflessioni di Voltaire sulla religione. Le invettive che il filosofo francese lancia all鈥檌ndirizzo del cristianesimo e della Chiesa, conseguenti ad una vera e propria indagine storica sulla religione cristiana, hanno lo scopo di sensibilizzare il lettore sui veri valori religiosi, stimolandolo ad uno sguardo critico che consenta di superare la visione dogmatica imposta dalla Chiesa nel corso dei secoli ed incitandolo ad abbracciare una religione pura, ossia il deismo (o, come preferisce chiamarlo lui, 鈥渢eismo鈥). La recente edizione del libro, curata da Domenico Felice, nel presentare in modo esaustivo tutte le componenti del testo, rappresenta un ulteriore passo avanti nella delineazione della figura di Voltaire

    Il dotto anatomista della condizione umana. Intorno a Montesquieu, Pensieri Riflessioni Massime, a cura di D. Felice, Milano, Societ脿 Aperta, 2021, 465 pp.

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    The work Pensieri Riflessioni Massime, edited by Domenico Felice, represents, due to the solidity of its themes, a fundamental milestone in Montesquieu鈥檚 philosophical production and, more in general, in modern philosophy. The lucidity the different subjects are dealt with makes this book another significant cornerstone in the French author鈥檚 thought.Il volume Pensieri Riflessioni Massime>, curato da Domenico Felice, rappresenta, per la corposit脿 dei temi trattati, una importante pietra miliare nella produzione filosofica di Montesquieu e, pi霉 in generale, della filosofia moderna. La limpidezza con la quale i vari argomenti vengono esposti, fa di questo libro un altro significativo caposaldo del pensiero dell鈥檃utore francese

    Reflexiones sobre la reciente publicaci贸n de Montesquieu. Tutte le Opere (1721-1754), Milano: Bompiani, 2014, pp. CCLI + 2.683 (ed. Domenico Felice)

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