106 research outputs found

    Mediterranean Diet, Inflammatory and Metabolic Biomarkers, and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease

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    We aimed to investigate the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk in a prospective study. Specifically, we analyzed reduced inflammation and improved metabolic profile as a potential medium through which the MeDi reduced the risk of AD. During a 4-year follow-up, 118 incident AD cases were identified among the 1219 non-demented elderly (age â©Ÿ 65) subjects who provided dietary information and blood samples at baseline. We used high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as an index of systemic inflammation, and fasting insulin and adiponectin as indexes of metabolic profile. We investigated whether there was a change in the association between MeDi and incident AD risk when the biomarkers were introduced into multivariable adjusted COX models. Better adherence to MeDi was associated with lower level of hsCRP (p =0.003), but not fasting insulin or adiponectin. Better adherence to MeDi was significantly associated with lower risk for AD: compared to those in the lowest tertile of MeDi, subjects in the highest tertile had a 34% less risk of developing AD (p-for-trend =0.04). Introduction of the hsCRP, fasting insulin, adiponectin, or combinations of them into the COX model did not change the magnitude of the association between MeDi and incident AD. Ultimately, the favorable association between better adherence to MeDi and lower risk of AD did not seem to be mediated by hsCRP, fasting insulin, or adiponectin. Other aspects of inflammatory and metabolic pathways not captured by these biomarkers, or non-inflammatory or non-metabolic pathways, may be relevant to the MeDi-AD association

    Use and Cost of Hospitalization in Dementia: Longitudinal Results from a Community-Based Study

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    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to examine the relative contribution of functional impairment and cognitive deficits on risk of hospitalization and costs. METHODS: A prospective cohort of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older who participated in the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP) were followed approximately every 18 months for over 10 years (1805 never diagnosed with dementia during study period, 221 diagnosed with dementia at enrollment). Hospitalization and Medicare expenditures data (1999-2010) were obtained from Medicare claims. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine (1) risk of all-cause hospitalizations, (2) hospitalizations from ambulatory care sensitive (ACSs) conditions, (3) hospital length of stay (LOS), and (4) Medicare expenditures. Propensity score matching methods were used to reduce observed differences between demented and non-demented groups at study enrollment. Analyses took into account repeated observations within each individual. RESULTS: Compared to propensity-matched individuals without dementia, individuals with dementia had significantly higher risk for all-cause hospitalization, longer LOS, and higher Medicare expenditures. Functional and cognitive deficits were significantly associated with higher risks for hospitalizations, hospital LOS, and Medicare expenditures. Functional and cognitive deficits were associated with higher risks of for some ACS but not all admissions. CONCLUSIONS: These results allow us to differentiate the impact of functional and cognitive deficits on hospitalizations. To develop strategies to reduce hospitalizations and expenditures, better understanding of which types of hospitalizations and which disease characteristics impact these outcomes will be critical

    Change in Body Mass Index before and after Alzheimer's Disease Onset

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    OBJECTIVES: A high body mass index (BMI) in middle-age or a decrease in BMI at late-age has been considered a predictor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the BMI change close to or after AD onset. METHODS: BMI of participants from three cohorts, the Washington Heights and Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP; population-based) and the Predictors Study (clinic-based), and National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC; clinic-based) were analyzed longitudinally. We used generalized estimating equations to test whether there were significant changes of BMI over time, adjusting for age, sex, education, race, and research center. Stratification analyses were run to determine whether BMI changes depended on baseline BMI status. RESULTS: BMI declined over time up to AD clinical onset, with an annual decrease of 0.21 (p=0.02) in WHICAP and 0.18 (p=0.04) kg/m2 in NACC. After clinical onset of AD, there was no significant decrease of BMI. BMI even increased (b=0.11, p=0.004) among prevalent AD participants in NACC. During the prodromal period, BMI decreased over time in overweight (BMI>/=25 and /=30) NACC participants. After AD onset, BMI tended to increase in underweight/normal weight (BMI<25) patients and decrease in obese patients in all three cohorts, although the results were significant in NACC study only. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that while BMI declines before the clinical AD onset, it levels off after clinical AD onset, and might even increase in prevalent AD. The pattern of BMI change may also depend on the initial BMI