122 research outputs found

    Transformation of Forest Vegetation After 40 Years of Protection in the Tomczyce Nature Reserve (Central Poland)

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    The Tomczyce nature reserve is characterized by a degenerated forest vegetation. We assume that the regeneration process was possible to launch after the establishment of the nature reserve in 1968. The vegetation of the Tomczyce forest complex was characterized for the first time by Jakubowska-Gabara (1976) whose studies were taken as a basis of our research. The phytocenoses after 40. years of protection have a greater participation of species with higher trophic and moisture requirements. The regeneration process in communities with pine trees is caused by an expansion of broad-leaved trees and shrubs. Transformation of forest vegetation causes a decrease in cover of thermophilous and heliophilous species. On the other hand, species of oak-hornbeam forests as well as anthropophytes are in expansion. Planning of the protection activities in the nature reserve needs to include these dynamic tendencies of the vegetation

    O papel do Governo polonês na execução de acórdãos do Tribunal Europeu dos Direitos Humanos

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    The specificity of the Strasbourg judgments is versatile and concerns many different areas of social life that it is not possible to effectively adapt legal norms and apply their interpretation by one entity of public authority. It can be said with full conviction that the execution of judgments is a continuous process and will last as long as the European Court of Human Rights is functioning; surely it will not end with the completion of the most difficult cases. It is important for the national system for the protection of human rights to be very efficient in the context of the protection of human rights. If, however, there is a violation of the norms of international agreements, Poland must be effective in meeting obligations such as the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights. There are two aspects involved in fulfilling obligations under international law arising from the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The first one is the introduction of appropriate standards of respect for the rights and freedoms enshrined in the treaty, and the second one is the obligation to enforce judgments of the European Court of Human Rights in the case of a stated infringement of the Convention. Both obligations must be carried out simultaneously by the state – which, as a party to the Convention, respects its provisions and fulfills the required international legal obligations. The subject of this paper is to present the powers and legitimacy of the body of the executive in Poland in connection with the execution of the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights.A especificidade dos acórdãos de Strasburg é versátil e diz respeito a muitas áreas diferentes da vida social, e não é possível adaptar eficazmente as normas jurídicas e aplicar suas interpretações por uma única entidade de autoridade pública. Pode-se dizer que a execução das sentenças é um processo contínuo e durará enquanto o Tribunal Europeu dos Direitos do Homem estiver em atividade; seguramente não terminará com a conclusão dos casos mais difíceis. É importante que o sistema nacional de proteção dos direitos humanos seja eficiente no contexto da proteção dos direitos humanos. Se, no entanto, houver violação das normas dos acordos internacionais, a Polônia deve ser eficaz no cumprimento de tais obrigações, como as sentenças da Corte Europeia de Direitos Humanos. Existem dois aspectos envolvidos no cumprimento das obrigações decorrentes do direito internacional da Convenção Europeia para a Proteção dos Direitos Humanos e das Liberdades Fundamentais. A primeira é a introdução de padrões apropriados de respeito aos direitos e liberdades consagrados no tratado, e a segunda é a obrigação de executar sentenças da Corte Europeia de Direitos Humanos no caso de uma violação declarada da Convenção. Ambas as obrigações devem ser cumpridas simultaneamente pelo Estado que, como parte da Convenção, respeita suas disposições e cumpre as obrigações legais internacionais exigidas. O tema deste artigo é apresentar os poderes e a legitimidade do órgão do Poder Executivo na Polônia em conexão com a execução das sentenças da Corte Europeia de Direitos Humanos

    New mud dragons from Svalbard: three new species of Cristaphyes and the first Arctic species of Pycnophyes (Kinorhyncha: Allomalorhagida: Pycnophyidae)

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    Background Kinorhynchs are marine, microscopic invertebrates inhabiting the seafloors. Their segmented trunk equipped with spines and processes has inspired scientists to give them the common name “mud dragons.” Even though kinorhynchs have been known since the 19th century, less than 300 species are known to science, and it is still considered a largely understudied animal group—in particular in the Arctic, from which only 23 species are known so far. Methods Samples were collected at eight stations around Svalbard and in the fjords of Spitsbergen. Meiofauna was extracted from the sediment cores with LUDOX centrifugation method, and kinorhynchs were picked up and mounted for light- and scanning electron microscopy. Results Four new species of the kinorhynch family Pycnophyidae are described from Svalbard: Cristaphyes dordaidelosensis sp. nov., C. glaurung sp. nov., C. scatha sp. nov., and Pycnophyes ancalagon sp. nov. The new species are generally recognized by their distribution of setae along the trunk segments. Discussion After the discovery of the new species, Pycnophyidae becomes with 14 species the most diverse kinorhynch genus in the Arctic, closely followed by Echinoderidae with 13 species. So far, these are the only kinorhynch families with an Arctic distribution

    Evaluation of dietary supplements use among pregnant women or planning pregnancy

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    WSTĘP: Racjonalne odżywianie i stosowanie suplementów diety w przypadku niedoborów pokarmowych sprzyja zachowaniu odpowiedniej kondycji zdrowotnej organizmu. Ma to szczególne znaczenie dla kobiet w ciąży i ją planujących. Dostarczenie niezbędnych składników pokarmowych umożliwia prawidłowy rozwój płodu. Celem pracy była ocena częstości stosowania suplementów wśród kobiet w ciąży lub ją planujących w porównaniu z pozostałą populacją ogólną. MATERIAŁ I METODY: Badaniami ankietowymi objęto 254 osoby, w tym 49 kobiet ciężarnych lub planujących ciążę. Do analizy statystycznej wyników zastosowano program GraphPad Prism 6 (testy Shapiro-Wilka, U Manna-Whitneya, Pearsona chi2). WYNIKI: Zażywanie suplementów diety deklarowało niemal 70% grupy kobiet w ciąży lub ją planujących oraz 54% osób reprezentujących pozostałą populację ogólną, z czego połowa zadeklarowała stosowanie preparatów suplementacyjnych codzienni e. Najpopularniejszym źródłem wiedzy na temat suplementów diety w obu grupach był Internet, a w mniejszym zakresie lekarz. Co czwarta osoba z obu badanych populacji nie zauważyła poprawy stanu zdrowia po zastosowaniu suplementów diety. Najczęściej suplementowaną witaminą w grupie kobiet ciężarnych lub planujących ciążę był kwas foliowy przyjmowany przez 43% respondentek, natomiast wśród składników mineralnych — magnez (33%). P ozostała populacja zażywała poszczególne suplementy witaminowe lub mineralne 2−6 razy rzadziej. WNIOSKI: Niska częstość stosowania suplementów zawierających kwas foliowy, witaminę D oraz jod przez kobiety w ciąży lub ją planujące może negatywnie wpłynąć na stan zdrowia matki i dziecka, zwłaszcza że niedobory tych składników są powszechne.INTRODUCTION: The rational nutrition and the use of dietary supplements in the case of dietary deficiencies, promotes good health condition. This is especially important for pregnant women and planning a pregnancy women. The provision of the essential nutrients enables the proper development of the foetus. The aim of the work was the assessment of conditions using dietary supplements among women before and during pregnancy, in comparison with the rest of population both genders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 254 persons were examined using questionnaire method, including 49 pregnant women or planning a pregnancy. In the statistical analysis we used the GraphPad Prism 6 (Shapiro-Wilk, Mann-Whitney U, Pearson’s chi2 tests). RESULTS: Intake of dietar y supplements was declared by 70% pregnant women or planning pregnancy women, and 54% persons of second group (half use ever y day dietar y supplements). The most popular source of knowledge about dietar y supplements in both groups was the Internet, and to a lesser extent the physician. Every fourth person from both studied populations did not notice health condition improvement after dietary supplements intake. The most common vitamin-supplement in the group of women before or during pregnancy was folic acid (43% respondents), whereas the most popular mineral component was magnesium (33%). The remaining part of population used various supplements with vitamins or minerals with 2−6 times smaller frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Low frequency of use of supplements containing folic acid, vitamin D and iodine by pregnant women or planning a pregnancy women may negative effect on the health of mother and of child, especially that their deficiencies are popular

    1,8-Naphthalimides 3-substituted with imine or β-ketoenamine unit evaluated as compounds for organic electronics and cell imaging

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    In this paper, we describe both new as well as described in our previous works 1,8- naphthalimide derivatives substituted at the 3-C position with imine or -ketoenamine unitin order to demonstrate a broader scope of research enabling of analysis between the structureproperties relationship relevant to the application of these compounds in organic electronics and cellular imaging. Thermal, physicochemical, optical, electrochemical, electroluminescence, and biological properties of a series of derivatives containing the 1,8-naphthalimideunit were tested and compared. This allowed the determination of impact of substituents in the imide part (hexylamine, phenylethyl, benzyl, fluorobenzyl, methylbenzyl), type of bond (imine or ketoenamine) as well as the substituent on the naphthalene ring (2-hydroxyphenyl, 5-bromo-2- hydroxyphenyl, 3,5-diodo-2-hydroxyphenyl, pyrimidines) on their properties. Moreover, the properties in the aggregating state were tested in the MeOH/PBS system. Imines are susceptible to the hydrolysis process and aggregation-caused photoluminescence quenching(ACQ). In turn,-ketoenamine shown excited-state intramolecular proton transfer promoted by aggregation (AIEE). Our studies can be helpful in the further design of compounds containing the 1,8- naphthalimide structure for various applications

    New acceptor-donor-acceptor systems based on bis-(imino-1,8- naphthalimide)

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    In this paper, six novel symmetrical bis-(imino-1,8-naphthalimides) differing in core and N-substituent structure were synthesized, and their thermal (TGA, DSC), optical (UV-Vis, PL), electrochemical (DPV, CV) properties were evaluated. The compounds were stable to 280 C and could be transferred into amorphous materials. Electrochemical investigations showed their ability to occur reductions and oxidations processes. They exhibited deep LUMO levels of about -3.22 eV and HOMO levels above -5.80 eV. The optical investigations were carried out in the solutions (polar and non-polar) and in films and blends with PVK:PBD. Bis-(imino-1,8-naphthalimides) absorbed electromagnetic radiation in the range of 243–415 nm and emitted light from blue to yellow. Their capacity for light emission under voltage was preliminarily tested in devices with an active layer consisting of a neat compound and a blend with PVK:PBD. The diodes emitted green or red light

    Ground- and excited-state properties of Re(I) carbonyl complexes - effect of triimine ligand core and appended heteroaromatic groups

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    In this work, a series of six rhenium(I) complexes bearing 2,2′ :6′ ,2′′ -terpyridine (terpy), 2,6-di(thiazol-2-yl)pyridine (dtpy), and 2,6-di(pyrazin-2-yl)pyridine (dppy) with appended quinolin-2-yl and N-ethylcarbazol-3-yl groups were prepared and spectroscopically investigated to evaluate the photophysical consequences of both the trisheterocyclic core (terpy, dtpy and dppy) and the heterocyclic substituent. The [ReCl(CO)3(Ln-κ2N)] complexes are regarded as ideal candidates for getting structure–property relationships, while terpy-like framework represents an excellent structural backbone for structural modifications. The replacement of the peripheral pyridine rings of 2,2′ :6′ ,2′′ -terpyridine by thiazoles and pyrazines resulted in a significant red-shift of the absorption and emission of [ReCl(CO)3(Ln-κ2N)] due to stabilization of the ligand-centred LUMO orbital. Both quinoline and Nethylcarbazole are extended π-conjugation organic chromophores, but they differ in electron-donating abilities. The low-energy absorption band of Re(I) complexes with the triimine ligands bearing quinolin-2-yl group was contributed by the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) electronic transitions. The introduction of electrondonating N-ethylcarbazol-3-yl substituent into the triimine acceptor core resulted in the change of the character of the HOMO of Re(I) complexes and a significant increase of molar absorption coefficients of the longwavelength absorption, which was assigned to a combination of 1MLCT and 1ILCT (intraligand chargetransfer) transitions. Regardless of the appended heteroaromatic group, the emitting excited state of Re(I) terpy-based complexes was demonstrated to have predominant 3MLCT character, as evidenced by comprehensive studies including static and time-resolved emission spectroscopy along with ultrafast transient absorption measurements. The diodes with Re(I) complexes dispersed molecularly in a PVK:PBD matrix were emissive andeffects of the complex structure on colour of emitted light and its intensity was pronounced
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