7,811 research outputs found

    Actions of arithmetic groups on homology spheres and acyclic homology manifolds

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    We establish lower bounds on the dimensions in which arithmetic groups with torsion can act on acyclic manifolds and homology spheres. The bounds rely on the existence of elementary p-groups in the groups concerned. In some cases, including Sp(2n,Z), the bounds we obtain are sharp: if X is a generalized Z/3-homology sphere of dimension less than 2n-1 or a Z/3-acyclic Z/3-homology manifold of dimension less than 2n, and if n \geq 3, then any action of Sp(2n,Z) by homeomorphisms on X is trivial; if n = 2, then every action of Sp(2n,Z) on X factors through the abelianization of Sp(4,Z), which is Z/2.Comment: Final version, to appear in Math Zeitschrif

    Ageing and relaxation times in disordered insulators

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    We focus on the slow relaxations observed in the conductance of disordered insulators at low temperature (especially granular aluminum films). They manifest themselves as a temporal logarithmic decrease of the conductance after a quench from high temperatures and the concomitant appearance of a field effect anomaly centered on the gate voltage maintained. We are first interested in ageing effects, i.e. the age dependence of the dynamical properties of the system. We stress that the formation of a second field effect anomaly at a different gate voltage is not a "history free" logarithmic (lnt) process, but departs from lnt in a way which encodes the system's age. The apparent relaxation time distribution extracted from the observed relaxations is thus not "constant" but evolves with time. We discuss what defines the age of the system and what external perturbation out of equilibrium does or does not rejuvenate it. We further discuss the problem of relaxation times and comment on the commonly used "two dip" experimental protocol aimed at extracting "characteristic times" for the glassy systems (granular aluminum, doped indium oxide...). We show that it is inoperable for systems like granular Al and probably highly doped InOx where it provides a trivial value only determined by the experimental protocol. But in cases where different values are obtained like in lightly doped InOx or some ultra thin metal films, potentially interesting information can be obtained, possibly about the "short time" dynamics of the different systems. Present ideas about the effect of doping on the glassiness of disordered insulators may also have to be reconsidered.Comment: to appear in the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Transport and Interactions in Disordered Systems (TIDS14

    Automorphism groups of polycyclic-by-finite groups and arithmetic groups

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    We show that the outer automorphism group of a polycyclic-by-finite group is an arithmetic group. This result follows from a detailed structural analysis of the automorphism groups of such groups. We use an extended version of the theory of the algebraic hull functor initiated by Mostow. We thus make applicable refined methods from the theory of algebraic and arithmetic groups. We also construct examples of polycyclic-by-finite groups which have an automorphism group which does not contain an arithmetic group of finite index. Finally we discuss applications of our results to the groups of homotopy self-equivalences of K(\Gamma, 1)-spaces and obtain an extension of arithmeticity results of Sullivan in rational homotopy theory

    Micrometeorological processes driving snow ablation in an Alpine catchment

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    Mountain snow covers typically become patchy over the course of a melting season. The snow pattern during melt is mainly governed by the end of winter snow depth distribution and the local energy balance. The objective of this study is to investigate micrometeorological processes driving snow ablation in an Alpine catchment. For this purpose we combine a meteorological model (ARPS) with a fully distributed energy balance model (Alpine3D). Turbulent fluxes above melting snow are further investigated by using data from eddy-correlation systems. We compare modelled snow ablation to measured ablation rates as obtained from a series of Terrestrial Laser Scanning campaigns covering a complete ablation season. The measured ablation rates indicate that the advection of sensible heat causes locally increased ablation rates at the upwind edges of the snow patches. The effect, however, appears to be active over rather short distances except for very strong wind conditions. Neglecting this effect, the model is able to capture the mean ablation rates for early ablation periods but strongly overestimates snow ablation once the fraction of snow coverage is below a critical value. While radiation dominates snow ablation early in the season, the turbulent flux contribution becomes important late in the season. Simulation results indicate that the air temperatures appear to overestimate the local air temperature above snow patches once the snow coverage is below a critical value. Measured turbulent fluxes support these findings by suggesting a stable internal boundary layer close to the snow surface causing a strong decrease of the sensible heat flux towards the snow cover. Thus, the existence of a stable internal boundary layer above a patchy snow cover exerts a dominant control on the timing and magnitude of snow ablation for patchy snow covers.<br/

    Jet substructure as a new Higgs search channel at the LHC

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    It is widely considered that, for Higgs boson searches at the Large Hadron Collider, WH and ZH production where the Higgs boson decays to b anti-b are poor search channels due to large backgrounds. We show that at high transverse momenta, employing state-of-the-art jet reconstruction and decomposition techniques, these processes can be recovered as promising search channels for the standard model Higgs boson around 120 GeV in mass.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    British Neurotoxin Network recommendations for managing cervical dystonia in patients with a poor response to botulinum toxin

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    Botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections are an effective treatment for cervical dystonia. Approximately 20% of patients eventually stop BoNT treatment, mostly because of treatment failure. These recommendations review the different therapeutic interventions for optimising the treatment in secondary poor responder patients. Immunoresistance has become less common over the years, but the diagnosis has to be addressed with a frontalis test or an Extensor Digitorum Brevis test. In case of immunoresistance to BoNTA, we discuss the place the different therapeutic options (BoNT-A holidays, BoNT-B injections, alternative BoNT-A injections, deep brain stimulation). When poor responders are not immunoresistant, they benefit from reviewing (1) injections technique with electromyography or ultrasound guidance, (2) muscles selection and (3) dose of BoNT. In addition, in both scenarios, a holistic approach including drug treatment, retraining and psychological support is valuable in the management of these complex and severe cervical dystonia

    AdS Strings with Torsion: Non-complex Heterotic Compactifications

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    Combining the effects of fluxes and gaugino condensation in heterotic supergravity, we use a ten-dimensional approach to find a new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric AdS compactifications on almost-Hermitian manifolds of SU(3) structure. Computation of the torsion allows a classification of the internal geometry, which for a particular combination of fluxes and condensate, is nearly Kahler. We argue that all moduli are fixed, and we show that the Kahler potential and superpotential proposed in the literature yield the correct AdS radius. In the nearly Kahler case, we are able to solve the H Bianchi using a nonstandard embedding. Finally, we point out subtleties in deriving the effective superpotential and understanding the heterotic supergravity in the presence of a gaugino condensate.Comment: 42 pages; v2. added refs, revised discussion of Bianchi for N

    Different HLA-DRB1 allele distributions in distinct clinical subgroups of sarcoidosis patients

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>A strong genetic influence by the MHC class II region has been reported in sarcoidosis, however in many studies with different results. This may possibly be caused by actual differences between distinct ethnic groups, too small sample sizes, or because of lack of accurate clinical subgrouping.</p> <p>Subjects and methods</p> <p>In this study we HLA typed a large patient population (n = 754) recruited from one single centre. Patients were sub-grouped into those with Löfgren's syndrome (LS) (n = 302) and those without (non-Löfgren's) (n = 452), and the majority of them were clinically classified into those with recovery within two years (resolving) and those with signs of disease for more than two years (non-resolving). PCR was used for determination of HLA-DRB1 alleles. Swedish healthy blood donors (n = 1366) served as controls.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>There was a dramatic difference in the distribution of HLA alleles in LS compared to non-LS patients (p = 4 × 10<sup>-36</sup>). Most notably, DRB1*01, DRB1*03 and DRB1*14, clearly differed in LS and non-LS patients. In relation to disease course, DRB1*07, DRB1*14 and DRB1*15 generally associated with, while DRB1*01 and DRB1*03 protected against, a non-resolving disease. Interestingly, the clinical influence of DRB1*03 (good prognosis) dominated over that of DRB1*15 (bad prognosis).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>We found several significant differences between LS and non-LS patients and we therefore suggest that genetic association studies in sarcoidosis should include a careful clinical characterisation and sub-grouping of patients, in order to reveal true genetic associations. This may be particularly accurate to do in the heterogeneous non-LS group of patients.</p

    Ulta-slow relaxation in discontinuous-film based electron glasses

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    We present field effect measurements on discontinuous 2D thin films which are composed of a sub monolayer of nano-grains of Au, Ni, Ag or Al. Like other electron glasses these systems exhibit slow conductance relaxation and memory effects. However, unlike other systems, the discontinuous films exhibit a dramatic slowing down of the dynamics below a characteristic temperature TT^*. TT^* is typically between 10-50K and is sample dependent. For T<TT<T^* the sample exhibits a few other peculiar features such as repeatable conductance fluctuations in millimeter size samples. We suggest that the enhanced system sluggishness is related to the current carrying network becoming very dilute in discontinuous films so that the system contains many parts which are electrically very weakly connected and the transport is dominated by very few weak links. This enables studying the glassy properties of the sample as it transitions from a macroscopic sample to a mesocopic sample, hence, the results provide new insight on the underlying physics of electron glasses.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure
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