23 research outputs found

    Needs, motivations, and identification with teaching: a comparative study of temporary part-time and tenure-track health science faculty in Iceland

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    Publisher's version (útgefin grein)Background: About 70% of teachers who instruct healthcare students are considered sessional (adjunct/temporary part-time) faculty and receive limited instruction in pedagogy. Sessional faculty may feel isolated and struggle with their teacher identity, and are often assumed to vary in their commitment, motivation, and ability to teach. However, research on teaching identity, motivations, and needs of sessional faculty is lacking. The aim of this study was to compare similarities and differences between sessional and tenure-track faculty across a health science school to guide faculty development for sessional faculty. Methods: We developed an online needs assessment survey, based on informal interviews and literature reviews. Seventy-eight tenure-track faculty and 160 sessional faculty completed the survey (37, 25% response rate, respectively). We used validated scales to assess intrinsic motivation, identified regulated motivation, and identification with teaching, as well as developed scales (perceived connectedness, motivated by appreciation to try new teaching method) and single items. All scales demonstrated good internal consistency. We compared sessional and tenure-track faculty using t-tests/chi-square values. Results: We found similarities between sessional and tenure-track faculty in intrinsic motivation, identified regulated motivation, and identification with teaching. However, sessional faculty perceived less department connectedness and were more motivated to improve instruction if shown appreciation for trying new teaching methods. Sessional faculty agreed more that they desired pedagogy instruction before starting to teach and that teachers should invest energy in improving their teaching. Admitting to less participation in activities to enhance teaching in the last year, sessional faculty were more interested in digital formats of faculty development. Conclusion: Our comparison suggested that sessional faculty value being a teacher as part of their self, similar to tenured faculty, but desired more appreciation for efforts to improve and perceived less connectedness to their university department than tenured faculty. They also preferred digital formats for pedagogy to improve accessibility, prior to and throughout their teaching career to support their development as teachers. Using this information as a guide, we provide suggestions for faculty development for sessional faculty. Supporting sessional faculty in the health sciences should improve the quality of teaching and positively affect student learning.The principal author, AGS, receives funding from The Doctoral Grants of The University of Iceland Research Fund. ABS received partial funding from The Academic Affairs Fund at the University of Iceland. No other forms of funding were received.Peer Reviewe

    Comparison of two methods based on cross-sectional data for correcting corpus uterine cancer incidence and probabilities

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    BACKGROUND: Two methods are presented for obtaining hysterectomy prevalence corrected estimates of invasive cancer incidence rates and probabilities of the corpus uterine. METHODS: The first method involves cross-sectional hysterectomy data from the Utah Hospital Discharge Data Base and mortality data applied to life-table methods. The second involves hysterectomy prevalence estimates obtained directly from the Utah Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. RESULTS: Hysterectomy prevalence estimates based on the first method are lower than those obtained from the second method through age 74, but higher in the remaining ages. Correction for hysterectomy prevalence is greatest among women ages 75–79. In this age group, the uncorrected rate is 125 (per 100,000) and the corrected rate based on the life-table method is 223 using 1995–97 data, 243 using 1992–94 data, and 228 from the survey method. The uncorrected lifetime probability of developing corpus uterine cancer is 2.6%; the corrected probability from the life-table method using 1995–97 data is 4.2%, using 1992–94 data is 4.5%; and based on prevalence data from the survey method is 4.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Both methods provide reasonable hysterectomy prevalence estimates for correcting corpus uterine cancer rates and probabilities. Because of declining trends in hysterectomy in recent decades, corrected estimates from the life-table method are less pronounced than those based on the survey method. These methods may be useful for obtaining corrected uterine cancer rates and probabilities in areas of the world that do not have sufficient years of hysterectomy data to directly compute prevalence

    Current Research into Applications of Tomography for Fusion Diagnostics

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    Retrieving spatial distribution of plasma emissivity from line integrated measurements on tokamaks presents a challenging task due to ill-posedness of the tomography problem and limited number of the lines of sight. Modern methods of plasma tomography therefore implement a-priori information as well as constraints, in particular some form of penalisation of complexity. In this contribution, the current tomography methods under development (Tikhonov regularisation, Bayesian methods and neural networks) are briefly explained taking into account their potential for integration into the fusion reactor diagnostics. In particular, current development of the Minimum Fisher Regularisation method is exemplified with respect to real-time reconstruction capability, combination with spectral unfolding and other prospective tasks

    Faculty’s attitudes and perceptions related to applying motivational principles to their teaching : a mixed methods study

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    Funding Information: AGS received funding from The Doctoral Grants of the University of Iceland Research Fund for her doctoral study, which this manuscript is a product of. ABS received funding from the University Teaching Fund for faculty development initiatives. Publisher Copyright: © 2021, The Author(s).Background: It is uncommon for faculty development professionals to assess faculty attitudes towards their teaching responsibilities and their perceived obstacles to teaching effectiveness. The purposes of this study were (a) to document faculty attitudes and practices related to applying motivation principles, and (b) to identify the perceived contextual factors that may shape these attitudes and practices. Methods: A sequential explanatory mixed methods design was used. Faculty members (n = 272; 32% response rate) were surveyed about their responsibility for and application of the five motivational principles that are part of the MUSIC Model of Motivation: eMpowerment, Usefulness, Success, Interest, and Caring. Repeated measures ANOVAs and Student’s t-tests were computed to detect differences. Subsequently, two focus groups of faculty members (n = 11) interpreted the survey results. We conducted a thematic analysis and used the focus group results to explain the survey results. Results: Faculty rated their responsibilities for applying principles related to Usefulness, Interest, and Caring significantly higher than they did for Success and eMpowerment. Most faculty also reported that they actually applied Usefulness, Interest, and Caring strategies within the past year, whereas over half of the faculty applied Success strategies and about a third of faculty applied eMpowerment strategies. Focus group participants identified factors that affected their ability to apply eMpowerment strategies, (e.g., offering choices), including students lacking generic skills (e.g., critical thinking, problem-solving), a lack of confidence in their abilities to implement empowering strategies and meet the needs of students, passive students, and large lecture-type courses. Focus group participants cited obstacles to implementing Success strategies (e.g., providing feedback), including difficulty in providing feedback in large courses, lacking time and assistant teachers, limited knowledge of technologies, and lacking skills related to guiding effective student peer feedback. Conclusions: Faculty appear adequately prepared to implement some types of motivational strategies, but not others, in part due to contextual factors that can influence their attitudes and, ultimately, their application of these strategies. We discuss how these factors affect attitudes and application of motivational strategies and formulate suggestions based on the results.Peer reviewe

    Silent myocardial ischaemia and haemoglobin concentration: a randomized controlled trial of transfusion strategy in lower limb arthroplasty

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    Background and Objectives  Red cell transfusion is commonly used in orthopaedic surgery. Evidence suggests that a restrictive transfusion strategy may be safe for most patients. However, concern has been raised over the risks of anaemia in those with ischaemic cardiac disease. Perioperative silent myocardial ischaemia (SMI) has a relatively high incidence in the elderly population undergoing elective surgery. This study used Holter monitoring to compare the effect of a restrictive and a liberal red cell transfusion strategy on the incidence of SMI in patients without signs or symptoms of ischaemic heart disease who were undergoing lower limb arthroplasty. Materials and Methods  We performed a multicentre, controlled trial in which 260 patients undergoing elective hip and knee replacement surgery were enrolled and randomized to transfusion triggers that were either restrictive (8 g/dl) or liberal (10 g/dl). Participants were monitored with continuous ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) (Holter monitoring), preoperatively for 12 h and postoperatively for 72 h. The tapes were analysed for new ischaemia by technicians blinded to treatment. The total ischaemia time in minutes was divided by the recording time in hours and an ischaemic load in min/h was calculated. Haemoglobin levels were measured preoperatively, postoperatively in the recovery room, and on days one, three and five after surgery. Results  The mean postoperative haemoglobin concentration was 9·87 g/dl in the restrictive group and 11·09 g/dl in the liberal group. In the restrictive group, 34% were transfused a total of 89 red cell units, and in the liberal group 43% were given a total of 119 red cell units. A postoperative episode of silent ischaemia was experienced by 21/109 (19%) patients in the restrictive group and by 26/109 (24%) patients in the liberal group [mean difference −4·6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −15·5% to 6%, P = 0·41). There was no significant difference (P = 0·53) between the overall ischaemic load in the restrictive group (median 0 min/h, range 0–4·18) and the liberal group (median 0 min/h, range 0–19·48). In those patients who did experience postoperative SMI, the mean ischaemic load was 0·48 min/h in the restrictive group and 1·51 min/h in the liberal group (ratio 0·32, 95% CI: 0·14–0·76, P = 0·011). The median postoperative length of hospital stay in the restrictive group was 7·3 days [range 5–11; interquartile range (IQR) 6–8] compared with 7·5 days (range 5–13; IQR 7–8) in the liberal group. The numbers were not large enough to conclude equivalence. Conclusions  In patients without preoperative evidence of myocardial ischaemia undergoing elective hip and knee replacement surgery, a restrictive transfusion strategy seems unlikely to be associated with an increased incidence of SMI. A proportion of these patients experience moderate SMI, regardless of the transfusion trigger. Use of a restrictive transfusion strategy did not increase length of hospital stay, and use of this strategy would lead to a significant reduction in red cell transfusion in orthopaedic surgery. Our data did not indicate any potential for harm in employing such a strategy in patients with no prior evidence of cardiac ischaemia who were undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery

    Apportionment of Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosols in Southern California during the 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols in Riverside (SOAR-1)

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    Ambient sampling was conducted in Riverside, California during the 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols in Riverside to characterize the composition and sources of organic aerosol using a variety of state-of-the-art instrumentation and source apportionment techniques. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass is estimated by elemental carbon and carbon monoxide tracer methods, water soluble organic carbon content, chemical mass balance of organic molecular markers, and positive matrix factorization of high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer data. Estimates obtained from each of these methods indicate that the organic fraction in ambient aerosol is overwhelmingly secondary in nature during a period of several weeks with moderate ozone concentrations and that SOA is the single largest component of PM<sub>1</sub> aerosol in Riverside. Average SOA/OA contributions of 70−90% were observed during midday periods, whereas minimum SOA contributions of ∼45% were observed during peak morning traffic periods. These results are contrary to previous estimates of SOA throughout the Los Angeles Basin which reported that, other than during severe photochemical smog episodes, SOA was lower than primary OA. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed