2,997 research outputs found

### Construction and Tests of Modules for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system
and will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction.
The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in
three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward
region.
The position of the pixel detector near the interaction point requires
excellent radiation hardness, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term
stability, all combined with a low material budget. The pre-production phase of
such pixel modules has nearly finished, yielding fully functional modules.
Results are presented of tests with these modules.Comment: Poster at the XXIII Physics in Collisions Conference (PIC03),
Zeuthen, Germany, June 2003, 3 pages, LaTeX, 2 eps figures. PSN FRAP1

### The Equivalence Theorem and Effective Lagrangians

We point out that the equivalence theorem, which relates the amplitude for a
process with external longitudinally polarized vector bosons to the amplitude
in which the longitudinal vector bosons are replaced by the corresponding
pseudo-Goldstone bosons, is not valid for effective Lagrangians. However, a
more general formulation of this theorem also holds for effective interactions.
The generalized theorem can be utilized to determine the high-energy behaviour
of scattering processes just by power counting and to simplify the calculation
of the corresponding amplitudes. We apply this method to the phenomenologically
most interesting terms describing effective interactions of the electroweak
vector and Higgs bosons in order to examine their effects on vector-boson
scattering and on vector-boson-pair production in $f\bar{f}$ annihilation. The
use of the equivalence theorem in the literature is examined.Comment: 20 pages LaTeX, BI-TP 94/1

### Effective Lagrangians with Higher Order Derivatives

The problems that are connected with Lagrangians which depend on higher order
derivatives (namely additional degrees of freedom, unbound energy from below,
etc.) are absent if effective Lagrangians are considered because the equations
of motion may be used to eliminate all higher order time derivatives from the
effective interaction term. The application of the equations of motion can be
realized by performing field transformations that involve derivatives of the
fields. Using the Hamiltonian formalism for higher order Lagrangians
(Ostrogradsky formalism), Lagrangians that are related by such transformations
are shown to be physically equivalent (at the classical and at the quantum
level). The equivalence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian path integral
quantization (Matthews's theorem) is proven for effective higher order
Lagrangians. Effective interactions of massive vector fields involving higher
order derivatives are examined within gauge noninvariant models as well as
within (linearly or nonlinearly realized) spontaneously broken gauge theories.
The Stueckelberg formalism, which relates gauge noninvariant to gauge invariant
Lagrangians, becomes reformulated within the Ostrogradsky formalism.Comment: 17 pages LaTeX, BI-TP 93/2

### System Tests of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

The innermost part of the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) experiment at the
LHC (Large Hadron Collider) will be a pixel detector, which is presently under
construction. Once installed into the experimental area, access will be
extremely limited. To ensure that the integrated detector assembly operates as
expected, a fraction of the detector which includes the power supplies and
monitoring system, the optical readout, and the pixel modules themselves, has
been assembled and operated in a laboratory setting for what we refer to as
system tests. Results from these tests are presented.Comment: 5 Pages, 9 Figures, to appear in Proceedings of the Eleventh Workshop
on Electronics for LHC and Future Experiment

### Equivalence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Path Integral Quantization: Effective Gauge Theories

The equivalence of correct Hamiltonian and naive Lagrangian (Faddeev--Popov)
path integral quantization (Matthews's theorem) is proven for gauge theories
with arbitrary effective interaction terms. Effective gauge-boson
self-interactions and effective interactions with scalar and fermion fields are
considered. This result becomes extended to effective gauge theories with
higher derivatives of the fields.Comment: 14 pages LaTeX, BI-TP 93/40, August 199

### High-Energy Vector-Boson Scattering with Non-Standard Interactions and the Role of a Scalar Sector

The high-energy behavior of vector-boson scattering amplitudes is examined
within an effective theory for non-standard self-interactions of electroweak
vector-bosons. Irrespectively of whether this theory is brought into a gauge
invariant form by including non-standard interactions of a Higgs particle I
find that terms that grow particularly strongly with increasing scattering
energy are absent. Different theories are compared concerning their high-energy
behavior and the appearance of divergences at the one-loop level.Comment: 21 pages LaTeX, condensed version of BI-TP 93/5

### Hamiltonian embedding of the massive Yang-Mills theory and the generalized St\"uckelberg formalism

Using the general notions of Batalin, Fradkin, Fradkina and Tyutin to convert
second class systems into first class ones, we present a gauge invariant
formulation of the massive Yang-Mills theory by embedding it in an extended
phase space. The infinite set of correction terms necessary for obtaining the
involutive constraints and Hamiltonian is explicitly computed and expressed in
a closed form. It is also shown that the extra fields introduced in the
correction terms are exactly identified with the auxiliary scalars used in the
generalized St\"uckelberg formalism for converting a gauge noninvariant
Lagrangian into a gauge invariant form.Comment: 31 pages, Latex, very minor changes, a concluding paragraph inserted,
version to appear in Nucl. Phys.

### Deriving Non-decoupling Effects of Heavy Fields from the Path Integral: a Heavy Higgs Field in an SU(2) Gauge Theory

We describe a method to remove non-decoupling heavy fields from a quantized
field theory and to construct a low-energy one-loop effective Lagrangian by
integrating out the heavy degrees of freedom in the path integral. We apply
this method to the Higgs boson in a spontaneously broken SU(2) gauge theory
(gauged linear sigma-model). In this context, the background-field method is
generalized to the non-linear representation of the Higgs sector by applying (a
generalization of) the Stueckelberg formalism. The (background) gauge-invariant
renormalization is discussed. At one loop the log M_H-terms of the heavy-Higgs
limit of this model coincide with the UV-divergent terms of the corresponding
gauged non-linear sigma-model, but vertex functions differ in addition by
finite (constant) terms in both models. These terms are also derived by our
method. Diagrammatic calculations of some vertex functions are presented as
consistency check.Comment: 33 Pages LaTeX, 6 figures uuencoded postscrip

### Signal and noise of Diamond Pixel Detectors at High Radiation Fluences

CVD diamond is an attractive material option for LHC vertex detectors because
of its strong radiation-hardness causal to its large band gap and strong
lattice. In particular, pixel detectors operating close to the interaction
point profit from tiny leakage currents and small pixel capacitances of diamond
resulting in low noise figures when compared to silicon. On the other hand, the
charge signal from traversing high energy particles is smaller in diamond than
in silicon by a factor of about 2.2. Therefore, a quantitative determination of
the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of diamond in comparison with silicon at
fluences in excess of 10$^{15}$ n$_{eq}$ cm$^{-2}$, which are expected for the
LHC upgrade, is important. Based on measurements of irradiated diamond sensors
and the FE-I4 pixel readout chip design, we determine the signal and the noise
of diamond pixel detectors irradiated with high particle fluences. To
characterize the effect of the radiation damage on the materials and the signal
decrease, the change of the mean free path $\lambda_{e/h}$ of the charge
carriers is determined as a function of irradiation fluence. We make use of the
FE-I4 pixel chip developed for ATLAS upgrades to realistically estimate the
expected noise figures: the expected leakage current at a given fluence is
taken from calibrated calculations and the pixel capacitance is measured using
a purposely developed chip (PixCap). We compare the resulting S/N figures with
those for planar silicon pixel detectors using published charge loss
measurements and the same extrapolation methods as for diamond. It is shown
that the expected S/N of a diamond pixel detector with pixel pitches typical
for LHC, exceeds that of planar silicon pixels at fluences beyond 10$^{15}$
particles cm$^{-2}$, the exact value only depending on the maximum operation
voltage assumed for irradiated silicon pixel detectors

- …