422 research outputs found

    Detecting and Studying Higgs Bosons at a Photon-Photon Collider

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    We examine the potential for detecting and studying Higgs bosons at a photon-photon collider facility associated with a future linear collider. Our study incorporates realistic \gam\gam luminosity spectra based on the most probable available laser technology. Results include detector simulations. We study the cases of: a) a SM-like Higgs boson; b) the heavy MSSM Higgs bosons; c) a Higgs boson with no WW/ZZWW/ZZ couplings from a general two Higgs doublet model.Comment: 52 pages, 26 figures, revised version with new appendi

    TP53 outperforms other androgen receptor biomarkers to predict abiraterone or enzalutamide outcome in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

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    Purpose: To infer the prognostic value of simultaneous androgen receptor (AR) and TP53 profiling in liquid biopsies from patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) starting a new line of AR signaling inhibitors (ARSi). Experimental Design: Between March 2014 and April 2017, we recruited patients with mCRPC (n = 168) prior to ARSi in a cohort study encompassing 10 European centers. Blood samples were collected for comprehensive profiling of Cell Search-enriched circulating tumor cells (CTC) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). Targeted CTC RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) allowed the detection of eight AR splice variants (ARV). Low-pass whole-genome and targeted gene-body sequencing of AR and TP53 was applied to identify amplifications, loss of heterozygosity, mutations, and structural rearrangements in ctDNA. Clinical or radiologic progression-free survival (PFS) was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis, and independent associations were determined using multivariable Cox regression models. Results: Overall, no single AR perturbation remained associated with adverse prognosis after multivariable analysis. Instead, tumor burden estimates (CTC counts, ctDNA fraction, and visceral metastases) were significantly associated with PFS. TP53 inactivation harbored independent prognostic value [HR 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-3.00; P = 0.008], and outperformed ARV expression and detection of genomic AR alterations. Using Cox coefficient analysis of clinical parameters and TP53 status, we identified three prognostic groups with differing PFS estimates (median, 14.7 vs. 7.51 vs. 2.62 months; P < 0.0001), which was validated in an independent mCRPC cohort (n = 202) starting first-line ARSi (median, 14.3 vs. 6.39 vs. 2.23 months; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: In an all-comer cohort, tumor burden estimates and TP53 outperform any AR perturbation to infer prognosis. See related commentary by Rebello et al., p. 169

    Multiple novel prostate cancer susceptibility signals identified by fine-mapping of known risk loci among Europeans

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    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous common prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility loci. We have fine-mapped 64 GWAS regions known at the conclusion of the iCOGS study using large-scale genotyping and imputation in 25 723 PrCa cases and 26 274 controls of European ancestry. We detected evidence for multiple independent signals at 16 regions, 12 of which contained additional newly identified significant associations. A single signal comprising a spectrum of correlated variation was observed at 39 regions; 35 of which are now described by a novel more significantly associated lead SNP, while the originally reported variant remained as the lead SNP only in 4 regions. We also confirmed two association signals in Europeans that had been previously reported only in East-Asian GWAS. Based on statistical evidence and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure, we have curated and narrowed down the list of the most likely candidate causal variants for each region. Functional annotation using data from ENCODE filtered for PrCa cell lines and eQTL analysis demonstrated significant enrichment for overlap with bio-features within this set. By incorporating the novel risk variants identified here alongside the refined data for existing association signals, we estimate that these loci now explain ‚ąľ38.9% of the familial relative risk of PrCa, an 8.9% improvement over the previously reported GWAS tag SNPs. This suggests that a significant fraction of the heritability of PrCa may have been hidden during the discovery phase of GWAS, in particular due to the presence of multiple independent signals within the same regio

    Two-locus genome-wide linkage scan for prostate cancer susceptibility genes with an interaction effect

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    Prostate cancer represents a significant worldwide public health burden. Epidemiological and genetic epidemiological studies have consistently provided data supporting the existence of inherited prostate cancer susceptibility genes. Segregation analyses of prostate cancer suggest that a multigene model may best explain familial clustering of this disease. Therefore, modeling gene‚Äďgene interactions in linkage analysis may improve the power to detect chromosomal regions harboring these disease susceptibility genes. In this study, we systematically screened for prostate cancer linkage by modeling two-locus gene‚Äďgene interactions for all possible pairs of loci across the genome in 426 prostate cancer families from Johns Hopkins Hospital, University of Michigan, University of Ume√•, and University of Tampere. We found suggestive evidence for an epistatic interaction for six sets of loci (target chromosome-wide/reference marker-specific P ‚ȧ0.0001). Evidence for these interactions was found in two independent subsets from within the 426 families. While the validity of these results requires confirmation from independent studies and the identification of the specific genes underlying this linkage evidence, our approach of systematically assessing gene‚Äďgene interactions across the entire genome represents a promising alternative approach for gene identification for prostate cancer.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/47598/1/439_2005_Article_99.pd

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE ‚Äď on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation

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    One of the ways in which legal services are financed, and indeed shaped, is through private insurance arrangement. Two contrasting types of legal expenses insurance contracts (LEI) seem to dominate in Europe: before the event (BTE) and after the event (ATE) legal expenses insurance. Notwithstanding institutional differences between different legal systems, BTE and ATE insurance arrangements may be instrumental if government policy is geared towards strengthening a market-oriented system of financing access to justice for individuals and business. At the same time, emphasizing the role of a private industry as a keeper of the gates to justice raises issues of accountability and transparency, not readily reconcilable with demands of competition. Moreover, multiple actors (clients, lawyers, courts, insurers) are involved, causing behavioural dynamics which are not easily predicted or influenced. Against this background, this paper looks into BTE and ATE arrangements by analysing the particularities of BTE and ATE arrangements currently available in some European jurisdictions and by painting a picture of their respective markets and legal contexts. This allows for some reflection on the performance of BTE and ATE providers as both financiers and keepers. Two issues emerge from the analysis that are worthy of some further reflection. Firstly, there is the problematic long-term sustainability of some ATE products. Secondly, the challenges faced by policymakers that would like to nudge consumers into voluntarily taking out BTE LEI

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