1,528 research outputs found

    An attention-based deep learning approach for the classification of subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment using resting-state EEG

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    Objective. This study aims to design and implement the first deep learning (DL) model to classify subjects in the prodromic states of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) signals.Approach. EEG recordings of 17 healthy controls (HCs), 56 subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and 45 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects were acquired at resting state. After preprocessing, we selected sections corresponding to eyes-closed condition. Five different datasets were created by extracting delta, theta, alpha, beta and delta-to-theta frequency bands using bandpass filters. To classify SCDvsMCI and HCvsSCDvsMCI, we propose a framework based on the transformer architecture, which uses multi-head attention to focus on the most relevant parts of the input signals. We trained and validated the model on each dataset with a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation approach, splitting the signals into 10‚ÄČs epochs. Subjects were assigned to the same class as the majority of their epochs. Classification performances of the transformer were assessed for both epochs and subjects and compared with other DL models.Main results. Results showed that the delta dataset allowed our model to achieve the best performances for the discrimination of SCD and MCI, reaching an Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.807, while the highest results for the HCvsSCDvsMCI classification were obtained on alpha and theta with a micro-AUC higher than 0.74.Significance. We demonstrated that DL approaches can support the adoption of non-invasive and economic techniques as EEG to stratify patients in the clinical population at risk for AD. This result was achieved since the attention mechanism was able to learn temporal dependencies of the signal, focusing on the most discriminative patterns, achieving state-of-the-art results by using a deep model of reduced complexity. Our results were consistent with clinical evidence that changes in brain activity are progressive when considering early stages of AD

    Degradation of EEG microstates patterns in subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment: Early biomarkers along the Alzheimer's Disease continuum?

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    Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological changes may begin up to decades earlier than the appearance of the first symptoms of cognitive decline. Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) could be the first pre-clinical sign of possible AD, which might be followed by mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the initial stage of clinical cognitive decline. However, the neural correlates of these prodromic stages are not completely clear yet. Recent studies suggest that EEG analysis tools characterizing the cortical activity as a whole, such as microstates and cortical regions connectivity, might support a characterization of SCD and MCI conditions. Here we test this approach by performing a broad set of analyses to identify the prominent EEG markers differentiating SCD (n = 57), MCI (n = 46) and healthy control subjects (HC, n = 19). We found that the salient differences were in the temporal structure of the microstates patterns, with MCI being associated with less complex sequences due to the altered transition probability, frequency and duration of canonic microstate C. Spectral content of EEG, network connectivity, and spatial arrangement of microstates were instead largely similar in the three groups. Interestingly, comparing properties of EEG microstates in different cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers profiles, we found that canonic microstate C displayed significant differences in topography in AD-like profile. These results show that the progression of dementia might be associated with a degradation of the cortical organization captured by microstates analysis, and that this leads to altered transitions between cortical states. Overall, our approach paves the way for the use of non-invasive EEG recordings in the identification of possible biomarkers of progression to AD from its prodromal states

    Altered cardiac autonomic nervous function in depression

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    Background:Depression is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Autonomic instability may play a mediating or moderating role in this relationship; however this is not well understood. The objective of this study was to explore cardiac autonomic function and cardiac arrhythmia in depression, the correlation between depression severity and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) related indices, and the prevalence of arrhythmia.Methods:Individuals (n = 53) with major depression as assessed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, who had a Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) score ≥20 and a Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale score > 53 were compared to 53 healthy individuals, matched for age and gender. Multichannel Electrocardiograph ECG-92C data were collected over 24 hours. Long-term changes in HRV were used to assess the following vagally mediated changes in autonomic tone, expressed as time domain indices: Standard deviation of the NN intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of 5 min averaged NN intervals (SDANN), Root Mean Square of the Successive Differences (RMSSD) and percentage of NN intervals > 50 ms different from preceding interval (pNN50). Pearson’s correlations were conducted to explore the strength of the association between depression severity (using the SDS and HRV related indices, specifically SDNN and low frequency domain / high frequency domain (LF/HF)).Results:The values of SDNN, SDANN, RMSSD, PNN50 and HF were lower in the depression group compared to the control group (P<.05). The mean value of the LF in the depression group was higher than the in control group (P<.05). Furthermore the ratio of LF/HF was higher among the depression group than the control group (P<.05). A linear relationship was shown to exist between the severity of the depression and HRV indices. In the depression group, the prevalence of arrhythmia was significantly higher than in the control group (P<.05), particularly supraventricular arrhythmias.Conclusions:Our findings suggest that depression is accompanied by dysfunction of the cardiac autonomic nervous system, and further, that depression severity is linked to severity of this dysfunction. Individuals with depression appear to be susceptible to premature atrial and/or ventricular disease

    Molecular Evolution of Broadly Neutralizing Llama Antibodies to the CD4-Binding Site of HIV-1

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    To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb) has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized llamas were studied via deep sequencing analysis using broadly neutralizing monoclonal HCAbs as a guides. Distinct neutralizing antibody lineages were identified in each animal, including two defined by novel antibodies (as variable regions called VHH) identified by robotic screening of over 6000 clones. The combined application of five VHH against viruses from clades A, B, C and CRF_AG resulted in neutralization as potent as any of the VHH individually and a predicted 100% coverage with a median IC50 of 0.17 ¬Ķg/ml for the panel of 60 viruses tested. Molecular analysis of the VHH repertoires of two sets of immunized animals showed that each neutralizing lineage was only observed following immunization, demonstrating that they were elicited de novo. Our results show that immunization can induce potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies in llamas with features similar to human antibodies and provide a framework to analyze the effectiveness of immunization protocols

    Penilaian Kinerja Keuangan Koperasi di Kabupaten Pelalawan

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    This paper describe development and financial performance of cooperative in District Pelalawan among 2007 - 2008. Studies on primary and secondary cooperative in 12 sub-districts. Method in this stady use performance measuring of productivity, efficiency, growth, liquidity, and solvability of cooperative. Productivity of cooperative in Pelalawan was highly but efficiency still low. Profit and income were highly, even liquidity of cooperative very high, and solvability was good

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV