1,364 research outputs found

    Phenotypic and molecular characterization of IMP-producing Enterobacterales in Spain: Predominance of IMP-8 in Klebsiella pneumoniae and IMP-22 in Enterobacter roggenkampii

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    Objectives: Little is known about IMP-producing Enterobacterales (IMP-Ent) in Europe. We analyzed at genomic and phenotypic level IMP-Ent isolates circulating in Spain in a 9-year period. Materials and methods: IMP-Ent isolates submitted to our reference laboratory were included. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed using microdilution method (EUCAST), and IMP-carbapenemase activity was measured with carbapenemase inhibitors, the ő≤-CARBA method, the modified Hodge test (MHT), and the modified carbapenemase inhibition method (mCIM). All isolates collected were sequenced for high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing, core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST), and resistome analysis. Results: Fifty IMP-Ent isolates, collected from 19 hospitals in 13 Spanish provinces, were detected: Klebsiella pneumoniae (IMP-Kpn) (24; 48%), Enterobacter roggenkampii (13; 26%), Enterobacter hormaechei (8, 16%), Klebsiella oxytoca (two; 4%), Enterobacter asburiae (one, 2%), Serratia marcescens (one; 2%) and Escherichia coli (one; 2%). All isolates were positive by the MHT and ő≤-CARBA tests; 48 (96%) were mCIM positive; 12 (24%) and 26 (52%) displayed positive inhibition with dipicolinic (meropenem) and EDTA (ertapenem), respectively. Five IMP-carbapenemase types were identified: IMP-8 (22; 44%), IMP-22 (17; 34%), IMP-13 (7; 14%), IMP-28 (two; 4%), and IMP-15 (two; 4%), predominating IMP-8 in K. pneumoniae and IMP-22 in E. roggenkampii. IMP-28 was exclusively identified in K. oxytoca and IMP-15 in E. hormaechei. Predominant STs were ST405 (29.2%), ST15 (25%) and ST464 (20.8%) in IMP-Kpn; ST96 (100%) in E. roggenkampii and ST182 (62.5%) in E. hormachei. Colistin and amikacin were the most active non-carbapenem antibiotics against IMP-Ent. Conclusion: IMP-Ent isolates remain infrequent in Spain, although in recent years have been circulating causing nosocomial outbreaks, being IMP-8-producing K. pneumoniae and IMP-22-producing E. roggenkampii the most frequently detected in this study. Inhibition with EDTA or dipicolinic acid presented false negative results in some IMP-producing strains. Active microbiological and molecular surveillance is essential for a better comprehension and control of IMP-Ent dissemination.This research was supported by grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (numbers PI18CIII/00030 and PI21CIII/00039). This research was also supported by CIBER-Consorcio Centro de Investigaci√≥n Biom√©dica en Red (CB21/13/00095 and CB21/13/000968), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaci√≥n and Uni√≥n Europea ‚Äď NextGenerationEU. This work was supported by Plan Nacional de I + D + i 2013‚Äď2016 and Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Subdirecci√≥n General de Redes y Centros de Investigaci√≥n Cooperativa, Ministerio de Econom√≠a, Industria y Competitividad, Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI RD16CIII/0004/0002 and REIPI RD16/0016/0007) and co-financed by the European Development Regional Fund (EDRF), ‚ÄúA way to achieve Europe,‚ÄĚ Operative program Intelligent Growth, 2014‚Äď2020.S

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function √į√į¬•with constraints√į √į √į¬• ¬• √įand√į¬ī√į¬• = √į. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV